Multiple Currency Pairs - Similarly we need to support the major currency pairs beyond "Cable" (GBP/USD). There are two aspects to this. The first is to correctly handle the calculations when neither the base or quote of a currency pair is equal to the account denomination currency. The second aspect is to support multiple positions so that we can trade a portfolio of currency pairs.
© 2019 Learn to Trade Pty Ltd (ACN:138178542, AFSL:339557) provides general information and educational courses and materials only. This is not an offer to buy/sell financial products. We do not provide personal advice nor do we consider the needs, objectives or circumstances of any individual. Financial products are complex and all entail risk of loss. Over-the-counter derivative and foreign exchange products are considered speculative because they are highly leveraged and carry risk of loss beyond your initial investment, hence should only be traded with capital you can afford to lose. Please ensure you obtain professional advice to ensure trading or investing in any financial products is suitable for your circumstances, and ensure you obtain, read and understand any applicable offer document.
Monitoring and High Availability - Since we are considering a high-frequency intraday system, we must put comprehensive monitoring and high availability redundancy in place. This means reporting on CPU usage, disk usage, network I/O, latency and checking that any periodic scripts are set to keep running. In addition we need a backup and restore strategy. Ask yourself what backup plans you would have in place if you had large open positions, in a volatile market, and your server suddenly died. Believe me, it happens!
In particular I've made the interface for beginning a new backtest a lot simpler by encapsulating a lot of the "boilerplate" code into a new Backtest class. I've also modified the system to be fully workable with multiple currency pairs. In this article I'll describe the new interface and show the usual Moving Average Crossover example on both GBP/USD and EUR/USD.
In particular we need to modify -every- value that appears in a Position calculation to a Decimal data-type. This includes the units, exposure, pips, profit and percentage profit. This ensures we are in full control of how rounding issues are handled when dealing with currency representations that have two decimal places of precision. In particular we need to choose the method of rounding. Python supports a few different types, but we are going to go with ROUND_HALF_DOWN, which rounds to the nearest integer with ties going towards zero.
These articles, on the other hand, discuss currency trading as buying and selling currency on the foreign exchange (or "Forex") market with the intent to make money, often called "speculative forex trading". XE does not offer speculative forex trading, nor do we recommend any firms that offer this service. These articles are provided for general information only.
Whether you have assets in a securities account or in a futures account, your assets are protected by U.S. federal regulations governing how brokers must protect your property and funds. In the securities account, your assets are protected by SEC and SIPC rules. In the futures account, your assets are protected by CFTC rules requiring segregation of customer funds. You are also protected by our strong financial position and our conservative risk management philosophy. See our Strength & Security page.
In order to understand Forex trading better, one should know all they can about margins. Forex margin level is another important concept that you need to understand. The Forex margin level is the percentage value based on the amount of accessible usable margin versus used margin. In other words, it is the ratio of equity to margin, and is calculated in the following way:
The market then wants to trigger one of your pending orders but you may not have enough Forex free margin in your account. That pending order will either not be triggered or will be cancelled automatically. This can cause some traders to think that their broker failed to carry out their orders. Of course in this instance, this just isn't true. It's simply because the trader didn't have enough free margin in their trading account.
Local Portfolio Handling - In my opinion carrying out a backtest that inflates strategy performance due to unrealistic assumptions is annoying at best and extremely unprofitable at worst! Introducing a local portfolio object that replicates the OANDA calculations means that we can check our internal calculations while carrying out practice trading, which gives us greater confidence when we later use this same portfolio object for backtesting on historical data.
GAIN Capital recommends you to seek independent financial and legal advice before making any financial investment decision. Trading CFDs and FX on margin carries a higher level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. The possibility exists that you could lose more than your initial investment further CFD investors do not own or have any rights to the underlying assets. 
It is essential that traders understand the margin close out rule specified by the broker in order to avoid the liquidation of current positions. When an account is placed on margin call, the account will need to be funded immediately to avoid the liquidation of current open positions. Brokers do this in order to bring the account equity back up to an acceptable level.
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Once an investor has started buying a stock on margin, the NYSE and FINRA require that a minimum amount of equity be maintained in the investor's margin account. These rules require investors to have at least 25% of the total market value of the securities they own in their margin account. This is called the maintenance margin. For market participants identified as pattern day traders, the maintenance margin requirement is a minimum of $25,000 (or 25% of the total market value of the securities, whichever is higher).
Margin is one of the most important concepts of Forex trading. However, a lot of people don't understand its significance, or simply misunderstand the term. A Forex margin is basically a good faith deposit that is needed to maintain open positions. A margin is not a fee or a transaction cost, but instead, a portion of your account equity set aside and assigned as a margin deposit.
Margins are a hotly debated topic. Some traders argue that too much margin is very dangerous, however it all depends on trading style and the amount of trading experience one has. If you are going to trade on a margin account, it is important that you know what your broker's policies are on margin accounts, and that you fully understand and are comfortable with the risks involved. Be careful to avoid a Forex margin call.

We use real-time margining to allow you to see your trading risk at any moment of the day. Our real-time margin system applies margin requirements throughout the day to new trades and trades already on the books and enforces initial margin requirements at the end of the day, with real-time liquidation of positions instead of delayed margin calls. This system allows us to maintain our low commissions because we do not have to spread the cost of credit losses to customers in the form of higher costs.
The script is currently hardcoded to generate forex data for the entire month of January 2014. It uses the Python calendar library in order to ascertain business days (although I haven't excluded holidays yet) and then generates a set of files of the form BBBQQQ_YYYYMMDD.csv, where BBBQQQ will be the specified currency pair (e.g. GBPUSD) and YYYYMMDD is the specified date (e.g. 20140112).
If you sell a security short, you must have sufficient equity in your account to cover any fees associated with borrowing the security. If you borrow the security through us, we will borrow the security on your behalf and your account must have sufficient collateral to cover the margin requirements of the short sale. To cover administrative fees and stock borrowing fees, we must post 102% of the value of the security borrowed as collateral with the lender. In instances in which the security shorted is hard to borrow, borrowing fees charged by the lender may be so high (greater than the interest earned) that the short seller must pay additional interest for the privilege of borrowing a security. Customers may view the indicative short stock interest rates for a specific stock through the Short Stock (SLB) Availability tool located in the Tools section of their Account Management page. For more information concerning shorting stocks and associated fees, visit our Stock Shorting page.

If traders are positive on the prospects for the Yen, they would expect the number on the right to go down – i.e. the Yen would be getting stronger against the Dollar. Traders would be buying less Yen with a Dollar as the Yen got stronger. Similarly, if the Yen was expected to weaken, forex traders would expect the Yen number to go up, reflecting the fact that the dollar could buy more yen.

Margin calls are mechanisms put in place by your Forex broker in order to keep your used margin secure. Remember, your used margin is allocated by your broker as the collateral for funds borrowed from your broker. A margin call happens when your free margin falls to zero, and all you have left in your trading account is your used, or required margin. When this happens, your broker will automatically close all open positions at current market rates.
As part of the Universal Account service, we are authorized to automatically transfer funds as necessary between your securities account and your futures account in order to satisfy margin requirements in either account. You can configure how you want us to handle the transfer of excess funds between accounts on the Excess Funds Sweep page in Account Management: you can choose to sweep funds to the securities account, to the futures account, or you can choose to not sweep excess funds at all.
Have you always dreamed of financial freedom? Maybe you want to start your own business and need a way to supplement the income it brings in. It doesn’t matter what your goals are – Forex trading may be the solution you have been looking for. This high-reward, high-risk market has plenty of opportunities for the patient, insightful investor. You do not need to spend all day researching and watching the market; currency trading only requires you to dedicate a small portion of each day to it, leaving you with more time to spend following your dreams!
All currency trading is done in pairs. Unlike the stock market, where you can buy or sell a single stock, you have to buy one currency and sell another currency in the forex market. Next, nearly all currencies are priced out to the fourth decimal point. A pip or percentage in point is the smallest increment of trade. One pip typically equals 1/100 of 1 percent.
How can you avoid this unanticipated surprise? Margin calls can be effectively avoided by carefully monitoring your account balance on a regular basis, and by using stop-loss orders on every position to minimise the risk. Another smart action to consider is to implement risk management within your trading. By managing your the potential risks effectively, you will be more aware of them, and you should also be able to anticipate them and potentially avoid them altogether.

Margin requirements for futures and futures options are established by each exchange through a calculation algorithm known as SPAN margining. SPAN (Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk) evaluates overall portfolio risk by calculating the worst possible loss that a portfolio of derivative and physical instruments might reasonably incur over a specified time period (typically one trading day.) This is done by computing the gains and losses that the portfolio would incur under different market conditions. The most important part of the SPAN methodology is the SPAN risk array, a set of numeric values that indicate how a particular contract will gain or lose value under various conditions. Each condition is called a risk scenario. The numeric value for each risk scenario represents the gain or loss that that particular contract will experience for a particular combination of price (or underlying price) change, volatility change, and decrease in time to expiration.

Trading on a margin can have varying consequences. It can influence your trading experience both positively and negatively, with both profits and losses potentially being seriously augmented. Your broker takes your margin deposit and then pools it with someone else's margin Forex deposits. Brokers do this in order to be able to place trades within the whole interbank network.
Currency markets are important to a broad range of participants, from banks, brokers, hedge funds and investor traders who trade FX. Any company that operates or has customers overseas will need to trade currency. Central banks can also be active in currency markets, as they seek to keep the currency they are responsible for trading within a specific range.

If your free margin drops to zero, your broker will send you a margin call in order to protect the used margin on your account. Always monitor your free margin to prevent margin calls from happening, and calculate the potential losses of your trades (depending on their stop-loss levels) to determine their impact on your free margin. With some experience, you’ll find it significantly easier to follow your margin ratio and understand the meaning of margin in Forex trading.


Trading foreign exchange on margin carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for everyone. Before deciding to trade foreign exchange you should carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience, and risk appetite. Remember, you could sustain a loss of some or all of your initial investment, which means that you should not invest money that you cannot afford to lose. If you have any doubts, it is advisable to seek advice from an independent financial advisor.
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