General features of muscle and movement
The usual fiber intake among Americans, however, is woefully lacking at only 15 grams daily. Fibers promote bacterial growth and activity in the large intestine. J Am Geriatr Soc. Cows Don't Drink Milk: This explains why active athletes do better with a higher percentage of carbohydrates in their diet. The old mono-meal feeding plan helps avoid wrong food combinations of concentrated protein and starch, but as has been pointed out, eating large mono meals of high-phosphorus and high-protein nuts, high-sugar fruit, or high-acid fruit can present other health challenges by overloading the system with concentrated levels of single nutrients or acid.
What is Astaxanthin?
An important limitation of Dr. Bass's experiments is that mice are an omnivorous species with higher protein requirements needed for growth who prefer to cannibalize each other rather than eat only fruit. By contrast, orangutans, a species more closely related to humans, are frugivores who eat nothing but fruit for months at a time when it is available, as noted in a article in the International Journal of Primatology by Cheryl D.
Knott who studied changes in orangutan calorie intake and fruit availability. Botanically, high-fat nuts are also classified as fruits and may be rightfully included in a fruitarian diet. Furthermore, according to a study by Popovich et al. The percentage will be so low as to approach zero" p. This misleading statement hides the fact that the average person in the U.
In a Bulletin of the World Health Organization titled The role of diet and nutrition in the etiology and prevention of oral diseases , Moynihan described epidemiological and animal studies that showed fruit is non-cariogenic doesn't form cavities when normally consumed, but is cariogenic in excessive amounts. This raises the question: Also, what other nutrients are lacking when eating mostly fruit?
Doug Graham claims it is impossible to get too much glucose from fresh fruit. Yet, his followers boast about eating 30 bananas a day which provides over grams of carbohydrates or over 53 servings each containing 15 grams of carbohydrates. Low-fat fruitarian advocates claim that fruit sugar only causes health problems when it accompanies excessive fat intake. This is a convenient twist of logic to justify a low-fat bias. Obviously, eating excessive amounts of calories from fat and sugar, a combination typically found in refined foods, will stress the body's ability to regulate energy intake, causing blood sugar problems, digestive issues, diabetes, and disturbances in calcium metabolism.
On the other hand, advocates of low-carb diets could just as easily argue that dietary fat only causes health problems when it accompanies excessive sugar intake! The ideal solution is to find the right balance between dietary sources of glucose and fat that is not excessive to the body's needs.
In his book, Graham acknowledged Natural Hygiene practitioner Virginia Vetrano's expertise in applying the principles of a raw vegan diet of fruits, nuts, and vegetables to help people recover and maintain health. Ironically, in her book published online in , Atherosclerosis--Avoidable and Remedial without Medication , Vetrano said, "Those who advocate a fruit, vegetable, and nut and seed diet but who limit fats to 10 per cent of the diet are terribly misguided and are completely wrong.
The internal body is a watery-environment, and fat is a non-polar hydrophobic molecule, meaning that fat cannot freely circulate throughout the body. It must be emulsified by bile salts and packed into micelles as it travels to the small intestines where it is bound with protein to form chylomicrons that are released through the lymphatic system and into the general circulation. At no time does fat float around freely and stick to the inside of the body.
Fat is naturally emulsified in whole plant-based foods unless refined to produce oil. Graham also acknowledged his mentor T. Fry, who taught that humans require very low amounts of dietary fat and protein. Muscle and liver cells can breakdown both fat and glucose to acetyl-CoA, a substance that is used by the cells' mitochrondria to generate energy in the form of ATP. A molecule of fat provides much more ATP than a molecule of glucose, which is why fat is the preferred fuel for long-term low-intensity activity.
Fat is what you burn when you go for long walks. Only the brain and central nervous system cannot breakdown fat for energy, relying on glucose or ketones manufactured by the liver. Dietary Protein In Orthotrophy , Shelton quoted from a study of healthy fruitarians: Fry's Devolution, Demise and Why , Vetrano said that diets consisting of mostly sweet fruits often lack protein, and that having sufficient protein in salvia helps to restore tooth enamel when fruit acid is eaten, but other factors are involved such as dysregulated phosphorus metabolism, discussed later.
Although there is protein in fruit, Vetrano said most people are unable to eat sufficient quantities of fruit to provide all the protein they need. Vetrano claimed that T.
Fry suffered from malnourishment due to his refusal to eat sufficient protein. Fry had argued that human milk is very low in its percentage of calories from protein, yet human milk still provides enough protein for an infant to double its weight in six months and triple its weight in a year, so Fry thought there is no need for a fully-grown adult to worry about getting adequate protein from natural foods.
Vetrano criticized Fry's analysis by pointing out that the protein content in the human milk he was analyzing was naturally more diluted as the infant transitions to solid foods. But Fry was aware of this, and I think there is a better reason to explain why he, like so many other fruitarians today, mistakenly ignored or underestimate protein needs.
Estimating protein intake by percentage of calories in one's diet can be misleading depending on the overall amount of calories eaten. Therefore, the absolute amount of protein in human milk is higher when measured by grams of protein rather than by percentage of calories.
Likewise, the absolute amount of protein in a low-fat fruitarian diet depends on how many calories are eaten. In addition, recent body composition evidence shows that the rapid growth of infants measured by weight is mostly body fat, not lean tissue, and an exclusive human breast milk diet provides a mere 0.
This provides strong evidence that protein needs for adults is actually less than recommended. The recommended protein intake for adults is 0. Notice that this amount is also close to that provided in human milk. Therefore, a pound male eating a raw vegan diet would require 43 grams of protein at 0. To get sufficient protein, the more calories consumed, the fewer concentrated-protein foods are needed, and the fewer calories consumed, the more concentrated-protein foods are needed.
For example, eating a few ounces of concentrated protein in nuts like walnuts, filberts, almonds, cashews, pistachios, etc. In my own experience, after a series of fasts, I used weightlifting and a low-calorie raw vegan diet containing 4 ounces of nuts and an average of about only 34 grams of protein a day to recover 30 pounds of muscle in six weeks, increasing my bodyweight from pounds to pounds with a 30" waist at 5'9. I ate my food in two meals, omitting breakfast. At the time, the people who ran the American Natural Hygiene Society were all practitioners of fasting institutes, like Vetrano.
The "hygienic diet" they recommended was the diet of raw fruit, nuts, and vegetables that they found suitable to feed their patients after undergoing fasting. This allowed their patients to slowly regain healthy bodyweight, just as I had. But my gain was not new muscle growth; it was simply replenished muscle that had been depleted by my fasting.
It doesn't take many calories to replenish depleted muscle After a fast, people regain lean weight consuming an amount of calories on which they would normally lose weight! The practitioners just assumed people could sustain themselves indefinitely on this type of temporary low-calorie refeeding program, but obviously they had little experience living on it themselves without adding in extra meals or cooked food.
After recovering my lost weight, I eventually realized that I needed to obtain more calories and more meals consisting of less concentrated protein sources like fruit, avocados, and low-protein nuts like coconuts and macadamia nuts. By comparison, wrote Shelton, "The digestion of starch foods consumes much more energy than does the digestion of sweet fruits. For example, much of cooked protein is wasted due to coagulation, making the protein less bioavailable and contributing to toxicity.
Cooking Clogs Your Arteries and Brain. Fruit has variable amounts of protein ranging from very small to quite a bit. For example, large servings of melons and oranges provide a significantly greater concentration of protein than most other fruits, and it is easier to meet protein requirements eating these fruits. However, a pound person would have to burn off the sugar in enormous amounts of other types of fruit e. This explains why the strongest vocal advocates of low-fat fruitarian diets tend to be distance athletes who require and eat enormous amounts of calories.
But this is probably not what Shelton meant when quoting how fruitarians maintained a "normal life. Instead of eating voluminous amounts of fruit, it would be more practical for distance athletes and others to add smaller amounts of concentrated plant fat to their diets to help meet resting and low-activity energy requirements.
This spares carbohydrates for more active energy use, and spares protein from being broken down for energy, thus allowing better tissue growth and maintenance. For these reasons, Shelton suggested, "it is, at least, a great saving [in energy] to the body if some fat is supplied. Our pound male dieting on calories from eating mono-meals of bananas totaling 14 bananas a day would receive only 18 grams of protein. This is less than the amount needed to cover obligatory nitrogen loss.
Mono-meals, where only one food is eaten at a time, are double-edged swords. They allow the eater to feel satisfied on less food and calories, but they can eventually lead to imbalances and deficiencies. For example, a mono diet of bananas is severely deficient in calcium which requires a large amount of dark green leafy vegetables like kale and collards to balance properly. A person who is not a distance athlete would also consume an unhealthy high amount of sugar on a mono diet of bananas.
The original concept of mono meals and eliminating diets which were popularized by early health reformers was never intended to provide a maintenance amount of calories to sustain weight. For example, an apple diet would provide no more than the normal amount of carbohydrates on a maintenance diet while eliminating concentrated sources of fat, starch, and protein.
By the way, blood tests showing normal calcium levels on a fruitarian diet can be very misleading because the body breaks down calcium stored in bone to release into the blood to restore higher calcium levels. The net result over time is osteoporosis, a silent disease that goes undetected until fractures appear. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone, a substance that triggers the release of calcium from bone, is a better indicator of bone loss.
Fry claimed some people of the Caribbean were "thriving" on as little as 15 to 20 grams of protein a day, but that depends on how you define thriving. According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, the daily protein intake in the Democratic Republic of the Congo between was Remember, the obligatory degradation of proteins in the body is grams of protein a day, so not everyone in the population would be receiving an adequate amount.
It's no wonder that people experimenting with low-calorie fruitarian diets often have dental issues. The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets , consuming sufficient protein is essential to maintain the collagen matrix, a type of connective tissue that provides the scaffolding to retain minerals in bone and teeth. As this collagen matrix breaks down from lack of protein, bones and teeth begin to lose minerals and deteriorate.
Small amounts of additional protein obtained from green vegetables is helpful, but a better alternative for those who aren't distance athletes and who aren't capable of burning off large amounts of fruit is to supply adequate amounts of protein and calories simply by eating a few more nuts and seeds.
Vetrano described a case of a young woman with a history of restricting her food intake to stay thin who was able to rapidly recover from edema, hair loss, and collagen tissue atrophy by including more concentrated sources of protein in her fruitarian diet from eating nuts, but much of the woman's improvement is also likely due to the additional calories supplied in nuts.
Both protein and energy must be fed in sufficient amounts to prevent PEM, protein-energy malnutrition. Feeding excess protein without supplying enough calories to meet energy needs is likely to result in the body burning the excess protein for energy instead of using it for tissue growth, repair, and maintenance.
In The Great Protein Fiasco , McLaren described how the overemphasis on protein needs in malnutrition was based on a misinterpretation of early studies of kwashiorkor in African children. It has since been found that protein deficiencies in these children occurs as a result of feeding inadequate calories from a mixed diet of whole foods, not from the low-protein content of the food itself.
For example, human milk is a low-protein food, but it is obviously adequate for growth and development in children. Nevertheless, commercial marketing of high-protein foods for profit keeps the high-protein myth alive. Why else would people think they need to eat animal-based foods? Copenhagen's historic nutrition researcher, Mikkel Hindhede, noted that adequate protein intake was often not a concern "provided sufficient calories were furnished.
According to Davis and Melina, the average sedentary to moderately active woman requires 1,, calories a day, and moderately active males require calories, based on size and energy expenditures. However, the average person lives on cooked food. A person living on a properly balanced raw fruitarian diet is much more efficient at metabolizing energy from calories in raw fruit, vegetables, and nuts compared to cooked starch and protein. If you are maintaining a healthy lean weight, and you observe that your nails are growing quicker and stronger on a fruitarian diet, then you are likely getting sufficient calories along with adequate protein to synthesize collagen tissue.
My experience regaining 30 pounds of muscle on 0. If you are eating sufficient calories from natural foods to meet your energy needs, it is impossible to consume fewer than 0. In Superior Nutrition , Shelton verified, "I have watched hundreds of men, women, and children make steady often rapid gains in weight and strength following lengthy fasts, while consuming less than half the protein daily that is required.
Note that the protein fed in these cases is mostly uncooked, which has a much higher bioavailability than heated protein. Thermally treated protein coagulates so that its amino acid strands fuse together and do not unfold or denature properly during gastric digestion, thereby wasting much of the protein. In addition to collagen breakdown from lack of calories and protein, too much fruit acid is claimed to breakdown tooth enamel.
Shelton warned against eating citrus fruit in excess, although he acknowledged that citrus fruits are wholesome foods. The acidic nature of these foods is entirely different from the acid-forming nature of some foods when they have been metabolized. Citrus fruits are alkaline when metabolized, but their acidic effect before metabolism means they should be eaten in limited amounts. To reduce the potential harm on defective tooth enamel from eating acidic fruits, it may be best to consume small amounts of acid and sub-acid fruits that have a low pH Shelton pointed out that nature designed sweet fruit like dates and bananas for the tropics, where humans developed, and this implies that non-acidic fruit may be more naturally suited for human consumption.
Citrus fruit is more commonly grown in semitropical regions, and apples were only recently cultivated in temperate climates where other acidic and sub-acidic fruits like berries, peaches, and grapes are grown. Acid in unripe fruit also decreases as fruit ripens and its sugar content increases.
Chimpanzees eat mostly ripe figs. Mothers are instructed to feed their toddlers diluted fruit juice to protect their toddlers' teeth from baby-bottle tooth decay due to prolonged exposure to fruit acid, sugar, and also to lactic acid from milk.
If you soak a chicken bone in vinegar overnight it turns rubbery as the acid removes the bone's calcium phosphate. Obviously, we don't soak our bones in acid, and bones lack protective dental enamel found on teeth.
A sound tooth is able to restore and maintain enamel due to a small amount of acid erosion on a daily basis. Shelton wrote that experimenters found no injury to sound teeth that were submerged in fruit acid for several months, and that lactic acid also does not harm sound teeth.
Since then, research has shown that enamel hypoplasia is caused by a high-phosphorus diet, and this could be an important determinant in weakening a sound tooth's resistance to acid erosion. Breastfed infants have a much lower prevalence of dental caries than bottle-fed infants, which could be explained by bottled cow milk containing six times more phosphorus. This implies that raw fruit has excellent potential as a bodybuilding food if fed as part of a well-balanced diet.
Protein per Calorie in Fruit. Note the important distinction between measuring protein by grams per calorie rather than by percentage of calories. It is easy to fool yourself into believing that you are getting sufficient protein from a low-calorie diet when you measure protein by percentage of calories instead of by grams per calorie. Confusing these two measurements seems to have misled many fruitarians into believing that human protein needs are lower than they actually are.
A pound person dieting on calories would need to increase their minimum required protein intake to Attempting to lose weight for long periods with a low-calorie diet that consists exclusively of fresh raw fruit and vegetables is not adequate in protein without adding concentrated sources from nuts, seeds, coconuts, avocados, etc. Vetrano pointed out that the human body is equipped with organs to digest concentrated protein foods like nuts and seeds, so sufficient quantities of these foods belong in the natural diet of humans.
Contrary to fruitarian Michael Arnsteins's opinion, most nuts and seeds including pecans, pistachios, almonds, filberts, cashews, coconut, etc. In a recent interview, Arnstein admitted that more dietary fat is probably needed. Fruit also has variable amounts of phosphorus and calcium. Excessive intake of some types of fruit high in phosphorus per calorie, similar to other carbohydrates like grains and legumes, can provide too much phosphorus to the body, which disturbs calcium metabolism and causes bone disorders and soft tissue calcification.
In chemistry, phosphorus is more than twice as electronegative as calcium, which means phosphorus attracts and controls chemical reactions with calcium, forming a serum calcium phosphate product, Ca HPO 4 2.
Shelton wrote, "phosphorus is as essential as calcium to the bones and the latter is usable in proportion to the amount of the former. As serum levels of free calcium fall, parathyroid hormone reacts within seconds to restore calcium levels by releasing calcium from bone. Because dietary phosphorus is absorbed into the blood quicker than calcium, any extra dietary calcium that was consumed is eliminated once normal calcium levels have been restored from bone loss or resorption.
A healthy diet supplies a calcium: In Superior Nutrition , Shelton wrote, "Most fruits are deficient in calcium, most green leaves contain an abundance of calcium. Nobody lives on fruit alone, so the calcium deficiency of fruits is supplemented by the calcium richness of green leaves. Fruits will not take their places.
The best solution is to keep phosphorus intake under control with a balanced diet. Basically, make sure that you are taking the right amount of calcium so that obesity does not creep in. It protects your heart muscles. If there is a calcium drop, a hormone called calcitriol is released, which contracts the smooth muscles of the arteries, thereby increasing the blood pressure.
Cardiac muscles need extracellular calcium ions for contraction. When the intracellular concentration of calcium increases, the ions gather together on the protein troponin. This stimulates the secretion of extracellular fluid and the intracellular stores, including that of the skeletal muscle, which is only activated by calcium stored in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Adequate amounts of calcium lessen the symptoms of a premenstrual syndrome like dizziness , mood swings, hypertension, and many others. Kidney stones are actually crystallized deposits of calcium and other minerals in the human urinary tract. The most common form of kidney stones is oxalate stones. Previously, it was thought that a high intake or high absorption of the minerals develop kidney stones, but latest studies show that a high dietary calcium intake decreases the risk of kidney stones considerably.
Other factors like high oxalate consumption from leafy vegetables like kale and spinach, as well as reduced fluid consumption, can also prove to be a big cause for kidney stones. Junk food, excess sugars , and preserved food items contribute to forming acidity in the body, which in turn could give rise to various conditions like cancer, kidney stones, and hypertension.
The principal types of muscles are striated muscle , in which the filaments are organized in transverse bands as in Figure 2 ; obliquely striated muscle , in which the filaments are staggered, making the bands oblique Figure 3 ; and smooth muscle , in which the filaments are arranged irregularly. In vertebrates, all voluntary muscles are striated, and all involuntary muscles are smooth, except for cardiac muscle, which is involuntary but striated.
Obliquely striated muscle is found only in some invertebrate groups the nematodes, annelids, and mollusks and has the protein paramyosin in the thick filaments as well as myosin. Muscles differ in the stimuli required to activate them. In vertebrates, voluntary muscles require action potentials electrical signals in their nerves to initiate every contraction. Some involuntary muscles are spontaneously active, and the action potentials in their nerves only modify the natural rhythm of contraction.
The leg muscles of all insects, and the wing muscles of many, require action potentials to initiate every contraction; however, the wing muscles of other insects consist of fibrillar muscle , which requires only occasional action potentials to maintain its rapid rhythmic contractions. The wings of these insects are attached to the body in such a way as to have a resonant frequency of vibration like a guitar string that vibrates when plucked at its resonant frequency.
When fibrillar muscles are active, they contract so as to maintain the vibrations of the resonant system. Muscles differ in the ability to exert stress. Muscles that exert large stresses have long, thick filaments that carry larger numbers of cross bridges. The result is more cross bridges than are found in other muscles.
This means that more force can be transmitted from each thick filament to the adjacent thin filaments, and larger stresses can be exerted. Less stress can be exerted when the fibres are shortening than when they are maintaining constant length, and more can be exerted when they are being forcibly stretched. Muscles differ in the manner in which their forces are controlled.
Most of the fibres in the voluntary muscles of mammals can only be switched on or off, and different degrees of force are obtained by activating different numbers of fibres. In many other muscles, however, the force exerted by each fibre can be varied. In these muscles, force is not controlled by activating different numbers of fibres but by changing the intensity of muscle activation as a whole.
Muscles differ in the ranges of length over which they can operate. Smooth muscles generally work over wider ranges of length than striated ones, but there are a few exceptional striated muscles.
One such muscle in the tongue of chameleons can shorten to one-sixth of its fully extended length. Muscles also differ in their speed of action, including the rates at which they develop force and shorten.
If a muscle shortens by one-tenth of its length in one-tenth of a second, its rate of shortening is one length per second. Maximum rates of shortening vary between species and between muscle fibres in a single animal. Finally, muscles differ in their metabolism. The adenosine triphosphate ATP that they use as their immediate energy source may be produced either by oxidative reactions, in which food is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, or by processes that do not require oxygen anaerobic processes.
Vertebrates and crabs use the anaerobic process of glycolysis , converting the carbohydrate glycogen to lactic acid , for short bursts of vigorous activity, such as sprinting. The burst of activity is followed by a recovery period in which oxygen is used to oxidize some of the lactic acid, releasing the energy needed to convert the rest back to glycogen. The advantage of using anaerobic metabolism in this way is that the intensity of activity during the burst is not limited by the rate at which the blood can bring oxygen to the muscles.
In vertebrates, many muscle fibres perform only oxidative metabolism or only glycolysis, though some perform both. Oxidative fibres are commonly red, due to the presence of the pigment myoglobin. Most fishes show an obvious distinction between the main bulk of white swimming muscle and a narrow strip of red muscle along the side of the body.
Slow swimming is powered by the red oxidative muscle and bursts of fast swimming by the white glycolytic muscle. Red and white muscles are also easy to distinguish in the domestic chicken , in which the pale meat of the breast consists mainly of white fibres and the dark meat of the legs consists of red fibres.
The breast muscles are the main muscles of the wings, which are used by chickens only for occasional short bursts of flight. Other birds that practice sustained flight e. A clamshell is an example of a simple system in which a rigid skeleton is worked by muscles.
The two rigid parts of the shell Figure 4A are hinged together. They can be closed to protect the animal within or allowed to open. A block of rubbery protein, the inner hinge ligament , lies just inside the hinge. When the adductor muscle contracts, it closes the shell, but, in so doing, it compresses the inner hinge ligament.
When it relaxes, the ligament recoils elastically, reopening the shell. This is an unusual system, in that it is worked by just one muscle. Most other skeletal systems need muscles in antagonistic pairs, in which each muscle is paired with a muscle of the opposite effect.
This antagonism is illustrated by the human ankle Figure 4B. The tibialis anterior muscle flexes the ankle raising the toes and the soleus muscle extends the ankle. These muscles make up an antagonistic pair. In this particular case there is another muscle, the gastrocnemius , which cooperates with the soleus, helping it to extend the ankle.
The gastrocnemius, however, crosses the knee as well as the ankle and affects both joints. The ankle is not a simple hinge joint. As well as flexion and extension, it can exhibit inversion the sole of the foot faces the other leg or eversion the opposite movement. These movements are controlled by the tibialis posterior, which inverts the ankle, and the peronaeus muscles, which are antagonistic and evert it.
Ball-and-socket joints, such as the human hip , allow three degrees of freedom. Most animal joints have at least two muscles an antagonistic pair for each degree of freedom. Seldom are muscle fibres as long as a muscle, but many muscles, such as the biceps in the human arm , are composed of relatively long fibres lying nearly parallel to each other.
These parallel muscles are attached to tendons or apodemes in arthropods, chitinous rods that serve as sites for muscle attachment only at their extreme ends.