Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System
The major mammalian sex glands include the prostate , the bulbourethral , and the ampullary glands, and the seminal vesicles. The vas deferens empties into the ejaculatory duct, which passes through the prostate gland to merge with the urethra. Body wt loss day lactation, kg. The sperm carry half of the total chromosomes required to produce an embryo. Semen contains sperm, the male reproductive gametes, along with a number of chemicals suspended in a liquid medium. Key Considerations in Operative Management Author s: Sources of vitamin D include irradiated yeast, sun-cured hays, activated plant or animal sterols, fish oils, and vitamin premixes.
How are they defined? What are the consequences and implications? As weight is easy to measure, this is the indicator for which most data have been collected in the past. Evidence has shown that the mortality risk of children who are even mildly underweight is increased, and severely underweight children are at even greater risk.
Children who suffer from growth retardation as a result of poor diets or recurrent infections tend to be at greater risk for illness and death. Stunting is the result of long-term nutrition al deprivation and often results in delayed mental development, poor school performance and reduced intellectual capacity. This in turn affects economic productivity at national level. Women of short stature are at greater risk for obstetric complications because of a smaller pelvis.
Small women are at greater risk of delivering an infant with low birth weight, contributing to the intergenerational cycle of mal nutrition , as infants of low birth weight or retarded intrauterine growth tend be smaller as adults.
Wasting in children is a symptom of acute under nutrition , usually as a consequence of insufficient food intake or a high incidence of infectious diseases, especially diarrhoea. Wasting in turn impairs the functioning of the immune system and can lead to increased severity and duration of and susceptibility to infectious diseases and an increased risk for death.
Childhood obesity is associated with a higher probability of obesity in adulthood, which can lead to a variety of disabilities and diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
The risks for most noncommunicable diseases resulting from obesity depend partly on the age at onset and the duration of obesity. Obese children and adolescents are likely to suffer from both short-term and long-term health consequences, the most significant being: Cut-off values for public health significance.
Prevalence cut-off values for public health significance. However, they are not yet included here as they are currently being evaluated. Child Growth Standards, publications and peer-reviewed articles. Technical Report Series No. Geneva, World Health Organization, Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trends.
Global Targets to improve maternal, infant and young child nutrition. Global Nutrition Targets World Health Organization, Interventions by global target.
No increase in childhood overweight. What does this indicator tell us? Anaemia has a wide variety of causes. Other conditions malaria and other infections, genetic disorders, cancer also play a role.
How is it defined? Anaemia is defined as a haemoglobin concentration below a specified cut-off point, which can change according to the age, gender, physiological status, smoking habits and altitude at which the population being assessed lives. Tests to measure haemoglobin levels are easy to administer. The test could be easily integrated into regular health or prenatal visits or household surveys to capture women of reproductive age, though one needs to consider the cost of the equipment and regular calibration.
Anaemia is associated with increased risks for maternal and child mortality. Iron-deficiency anaemia reduces the work capacity of individuals and entire populations, with serious consequences for the economy and national development. In addition, the negative consequences of iron-deficiency anaemia on the cognitive and physical development of children and on physical performance - particularly the work productivity of adults - are major concerns.
Anaemia is a global problem affecting all countries. Resource-poor areas are often more heavily impacted due to the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main risk factors for iron-deficiency anaemia include a low dietary intake of iron or poor absorption of iron from diets rich in phytates or phenolic compounds. Population groups with greater iron requirements, such as growing children and pregnant women, are particularly at risk. Overall, the most vulnerable, poorest and least educated groups are disproportionately affected by iron-deficiency anaemia.
No public health problem. Mild public health problem. Moderate public health problem. Severe public health problem. Stevens GA et al. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for Lancet Global Health ; ; 1: Data about haemoglobin and anaemia for women of childbearing age 15—49 years were estimated for each country and for each year between and using survey data obtained from population-representative data sources from countries worldwide.
A Bayesian hierarchical mixture model was used to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. More information on the methodology can be found in: Haemoglobin concentrations for the diagnosis of anaemia and assessment of severity. Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System. At population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes long-term maternal mal nutrition , ill health and poor health care in pregnancy.
Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. Low birth weight is included as a primary outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Low birth weight is caused by intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or both.
It contributes to a range of poor health outcomes: Low-birth-weight infants are approximately 20 times more likely to die than heavier infants.
However, data on low birth weight in developing countries is often limited because a significant portion of deliveries are done in homes or small health facilities where cases of infants with low birth weight often go unreported. These cases are not reflected in official figures and may lead to a significant underestimation of low birth weight prevalence.
Feto-maternal nutrition and low birth weight. Low birth weight policy brief. The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include:. Early initiation of breastfeeding is defined as the proportion of children born in the past 24 months who were put to the breast within 1 hour of birth.
Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality. Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers. An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants.
Thereafter, infants should receive complementary foods with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. It continues to provide up to one half or more of a child's nutritional needs during the second half of the first year and up to one third during the second year of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases.
Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness. Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.
It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. The indicator is the percentage of infants who start solid, semisolid or soft foods at between 6 and 8 months of age. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.
When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. The transition from exclusive breastfeeding to family foods, referred to as 'complementary feeding', typically occurs between 6 and months of age. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide.
This indicator is the percentage of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged months. Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality. Infant and young child feeding list of publications.
The optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding: Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy. It is the proportion of children aged 0—59 months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution. The terms used for diarrhoea should cover the expressions used for all forms of diarrhoea, including bloody stools consistent with dysentery and watery stools, and should encompasses mothers' definitions as well as local terms.
Diarrhoeal diseases remain one of the major causes of mortality among children under 5, accounting for 1. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost—effective intervention indicates progress on an intermediate outcome indicator of the Global Nutrition Targets, prevalence of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age.
Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework: Operational guidance for tracking progress in meeting targets for Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity. The values for body mass index BMI are age-independent for adult populations and are the same for both genders.
BMI may not, however, correspond to the same degree of fatness in different populations due, in part, to different body proportions. The health risks associated with increasing BMI are continuous, and the interpretation of BMI grading in relation to risk may differ for different populations.
Proportions of underweight in women aged years and of overweight in women aged 18 years or more are included as intermediate outcome indicators in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. BMI is a simple index of weight-to-height commonly used to classify underweight, overweight and obesity in adults.
For example, an adult who weighs 58 kg and whose height is 1. Moderate and severe thinness: It has been linked to clear-cut increases in illness in adults studied in three continents and is therefore a further reasonable value to choose as a cut-off point for moderate risk.
The cut-off point of The proportion of the population with a low BMI that is considered a public health problem is closely linked to the resources available for correcting the problem, the stability of the environment and government priorities.
In some populations, the metabolic consequences of weight gain start at modest levels of overweight. The costs attributable to obesity are high, not only in terms of premature death and health care but also in terms of disability and a diminished quality of life. Low prevalence warning sign, monitoring required. Medium prevalence poor situation. High prevalence serious situation. Very high prevalence critical situation.
Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from to Obesity and other diet related chronic diseases, list of publications. Halt the rise in diabetes and obesity. Adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years. The adolescent birth rate, technically known as the age-specific fertility rate provides a basic measure of reproductive health focusing on a vulnerable group of adolescent women.
The indicator adolescent birth rate per 1, women aged years is included as an intermediate outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework.
It is also referred to as the age-specific fertility rate for women aged There is substantial agreement in the literature that women who become pregnant and give birth very early in their reproductive lives are subject to higher risks of complications or even death during pregnancy and birth and their children are also more vulnerable.
Furthermore, women having children at an early age experience a curtailment of their opportunities for socio-economic improvement, particularly because young mothers are unlikely to keep on studying and, if they need to work, may find it especially difficult to combine family and work responsibilities. The adolescent birth rate provides also indirect evidence on access to reproductive health since the youth, and in particular unmarried adolescent women, often experience difficulties in access to reproductive health care.
Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health. Moderate and severe thinness, underweight, overweight, obesity What do these indicators tell us? Overweight in school-age children and adolescents. This indicator reflects the percentage of school-age children and adolescents years who are classified as overweight based on age and sex specific values for body mass index BMI.
Overweight indicates excess body weight for a given height from fat, muscle, bone, water or a combination of these factors, whilst obesity is defined as having excess body fat. The immediate consequences of overweight and obesity in school-age children and adolescents include greater risk of asthma and cognitive impairment, in addition to the social and economic consequences for the child, its family and the society.
In the long term, overweight and obesity in children increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, respiratory disease, mental health, and reproductive disorders later in life. Furthermore, obesity and overweight track over the life course — an overweight adolescent girl is more likely to become an overweight woman and, thus, her baby is likely to have a heavier birth weight.
Growth reference years. Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding. This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth.
Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed. This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water.
The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods.
Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. Because it has muscular walls it can expand and contract. This ability to become wider or narrower allows the vagina to accommodate something as slim as a tampon and as wide as a baby.
The vagina's muscular walls are lined with mucous membranes, which keep it protected and moist. The vagina has several functions: A very thin piece of skin-like tissue called the hymen partly covers the opening of the vagina. Hymens are often different from person to person. Most women find their hymens have stretched or torn after their first sexual experience, and the hymen may bleed a little this usually causes little, if any, pain.
Some women who have had sex don't have much of a change in their hymens, though. The vagina connects with the uterus , or womb, at the cervix. The cervix has strong, thick walls. The opening of the cervix is very small no wider than a straw , which is why a tampon can never get lost inside a girl's body.
During childbirth, the cervix can expand to allow a baby to pass. The uterus is shaped like an upside-down pear, with a thick lining and muscular walls — in fact, the uterus contains some of the strongest muscles in the female body. These muscles are able to expand and contract to accommodate a growing fetus and then help push the baby out during labor. When a woman isn't pregnant, the uterus is only about 3 inches 7. At the upper corners of the uterus, the fallopian pronounced: The ovaries are two oval-shaped organs that lie to the upper right and left of the uterus.
They produce, store, and release eggs into the fallopian tubes in the process called ovulation pronounced: There are two fallopian tubes, each attached to a side of the uterus. The fallopian tubes are about 4 inches 10 centimeters long and about as wide as a piece of spaghetti. Within each tube is a tiny passageway no wider than a sewing needle. At the other end of each fallopian tube is a fringed area that looks like a funnel.
This fringed area wraps around the ovary but doesn't completely attach to it. When an egg pops out of an ovary, it enters the fallopian tube. Once the egg is in the fallopian tube, tiny hairs in the tube's lining help push it down the narrow passageway toward the uterus. The ovaries are also part of the endocrine system because they produce female sex hormones such as estrogen pronounced: ESS-truh-jun and progesterone pronounced: Sexual reproduction couldn't happen without the sexual organs called the gonads.
Although most people think of the gonads as the male testicles, both sexes actually have gonads: In females the gonads are the ovaries. The female gonads produce female gametes eggs ; the male gonads produce male gametes sperm.
After an egg is fertilized by the sperm, the fertilized egg is called the zygote pronounced: When a baby girl is born, her ovaries contain hundreds of thousands of eggs, which remain inactive until puberty begins. At puberty, the pituitary gland, located in the central part of the brain, starts making hormones that stimulate the ovaries to produce female sex hormones, including estrogen.
The secretion of these hormones causes a girl to develop into a sexually mature woman. Toward the end of puberty, girls begin to release eggs as part of a monthly period called the menstrual cycle.
Approximately once a month, during ovulation, an ovary sends a tiny egg into one of the fallopian tubes. Unless the egg is fertilized by a sperm while in the fallopian tube, the egg dries up and leaves the body about 2 weeks later through the uterus. This process is called menstruation. Blood and tissues from the inner lining of the uterus combine to form the menstrual flow, which in most girls lasts from 3 to 5 days.
A girl's first period is called menarche pronounced: It's common for women and girls to experience some discomfort in the days leading to their periods. Premenstrual syndrome PMS includes both physical and emotional symptoms that many girls and women get right before their periods, such as acne, bloating, fatigue, backaches, sore breasts, headaches, constipation, diarrhea, food cravings, depression, irritability, or difficulty concentrating or handling stress.
PMS is usually at its worst during the 7 days before a girl's period starts and disappears once it begins. Many girls also experience abdominal cramps during the first few days of their periods. They are caused by prostaglandins, chemicals in the body that makes the smooth muscle in the uterus contract. These involuntary contractions can be either dull or sharp and intense.
It can take up to 2 years from menarche for a girl's body to develop a regular menstrual cycle. During that time, her body is adjusting to the hormones puberty brings.
On average, the monthly cycle for an adult woman is 28 days, but the range is from 23 to 35 days. If a female and male have sex within several days of the female's ovulation egg release , fertilization can occur. When the male ejaculates which is when semen leaves a man's penis , between 0. Between 75 and million sperm are in this small amount of semen, and they "swim" up from the vagina through the cervix and uterus to meet the egg in the fallopian tube. It takes only one sperm to fertilize the egg.
About a week after the sperm fertilizes the egg, the fertilized egg zygote has become a multi-celled blastocyst pronounced: