If this pruning cannot take place, the organ becomes less and less efficient, and dire consequences result. Articles related to Sarah Morgan. E lectro-Shock Electric shock treatments are being selectively revived. Craig joined Finsbury in , after a long career as an award-winning journalist with New York Magazine, where he was one of the city's best-known reporters, covering politics, public policy, crime, and health care. We think there are other subtle, long-term statin downsides that have yet to be confirmed by more research. Usually those who connect up autism with mercury believe the problem arises in vaccinations, especially spray type vaccines www0. After the panel discussion students join alumni for small group discussions on the challenges and benefits of networking and to gather advice from alumni.
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These discussions provide students with valuable sector information and insights about specific organizations and institutions. We organize 20 sector-focused career treks to Asia, Europe, and North America every year: In past years, we have helped students in various Career Clubs coordinate treks to other destinations as well. If you are interested in helping to organize a career trek, contact your Career Club president or contact the Global Careers office on your campus.
During the Austin Energy Trek, participating organizations included: During the Beijing Trek, participating organizations included: Students at Shell during the Houston Career Trek.
Students during the London Finance Career Trek. Alumni continue to be one of our key assets for recruiting! You know the curriculum, you recognize the quality of students and faculty, and you understand how this background fits into your own chosen profession.
To see the services we provide, please click on the 'For Employers' tab on this website. Below are some of the ways we ask alumni to engage with students. Meet informally over breakfast or lunch to discuss your career and provide feedback to a smaller group of students on their interest in your field. Host a group of students at your place of employment.
Help us coordinate alumni panels and employer visits for a group of students in your city or region. Meet one-on-one with students to talk more in depth about your career path and provide specific feedback on how a student's interest and background would fit into your field. Help students practice specific interview skills.
We would be happy to organize sessions in our office, help connect students to you electronically, or send students to you. Talk with an Expert Information Sessions: If you would like to speak on a specific professional development topic or subject to a group of students, please let us know. Speak in a series of panels to give students insight about different industries, including but not limited to, consulting, international development, energy and the environment, US federal government, think thanks, among others.
International Student Networking Event: S hare your experiences with networking during your US job search. Serve as a mentor via the 1-on-1 career development mentoring program.
See below a list of opportunities to connect with your next hire. Please contact the staff member at the campus located most conveniently to you in terms of distance or time zone see 'Connect with Us' tab , or contact Janet Burrowes, Associate Director for Employers Relations, jburrowes jhu.
You are welcome to advertise open positions on Handshake, a free, online job posting and internship resource for students and alumni which allows them to respond directly to the posting organization.
In addition to posting an opportunity, Global Career Services can prepare customized books of cover letters and resumes for your consideration from qualified candidates who express specific interest in your job or internship posting.
Employer presentations are an effective way to provide students with an overview of your organization, while building brand awareness on campus. Presentations can be either formal or informal and often range from auditorium style engagements with technical support to informal 'brown bag' lunches with smaller group of students.
The fair is a convenient way for companies to increase their visibility on campus, recruit talent, and to network with highly-motivated students and alumni. Career treks provide you with the opportunity to network with students who are interested in learning about future employment opportunities.
If you want to interview students without incurring travel costs, we can facilitate video interviewing. Employers are often invited to work with clubs on their various events, allowing employers to target and network with a select group of students. Employment Outcomes Key Figures. New York Global Banks. To add to the sour French-US political relations, There was a diplomatic uproar when the French President Jacques Chirac accused the US of blackmailing developing countries to give up measures to obtain life-saving drugs through these bilateral trade deals.
And its not just the US, but European countries, that seem to be aggressively looking for ways to prevent developing countries legitimately using generics. In October , Oxfam released a report criticizing the European Union of double standards: The EU was trying to reduce the price of generic drugs within its own borders while preventing developing countries doing the same.
The British Medical Journal also reported on this October 24, , p. Yet, it seems seizures of legitimate drugs have occurred. An additional point should be stressed here: Fake drugs, on the other hand, are extremely dangerous on numerous levels. A Channel 4 documentary unfortunately I do not recall the date, any more , highlighted as much, showing how an organized group in India were quite candid about their ability to create fake drugs to order for example, mixing only a small amount of legitimate ingredient with chalk and other fake items to give the pills substance.
The criminal, moral, economic and social damage such practice can cause is difficult to understate and has to be stamped out at all costs. This is how inequality can become structured into law. While pharmaceutical companies have no doubt created life-saving drugs that have saved millions of lives, they have also participated in practices around the world that have come under a growing amount of criticism. John Madeley is worth quoting at length:. Making use of advertising that is inexpensive in comparison to what they pay in industrialized countries, the drug TNCs use the most persuasive, not to say unethical, methods to persuade the poor to buy their wares.
Extravagant claims are made that would be outlawed in the Western countries. A survey, in the Annals of Internal Medicine found that 62 per cent of the pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals were either grossly misleading or downright inaccurate. Madeley goes on to provide an example amongst many others where US-based drug company Eli Lilly made the largest one-time pharmaceutical donation at that time, to provide an antibiotic to Rwanda during their refugee crisis in They donated enough for 1.
He also pointed out that Médicins sans Frontiéres Doctors without Borders … said it would never prescribe such medicines in the camps.
Many of the pills were past their expiry date, which added additional resource burdens to a country already suffering from the aftermath of a civil conflict. Madeley also shows some additional reasons to this apparent generosity that:. For gifts to the needy, US tax regulations allow a write-off for tax purposes of up to twice the production costs.
Madeley wrote the above in To help prepare [for new and updated guidelines on drug donations], WHO [World Health Organization] did a systematic review of drug donations during to The ensuing cost of drug destruction, where documented, was significant, says Dr Moller, one of the authors of the review. Sukkar adds that the current WHO guidelines were written for emergencies, but the new ones are to include other scenarios such as protracted emergencies, donations targeting specific diseases, and other forms of donations.
Noting that drug companies are one of the key donors for long term programs, she lists why they are so:. She also notes that the industry has improved over the past 2 decades, suggesting it may partly be because there is more scrutiny over what drug companies do, these days.
More fundamentally, however, UNICEF and others feel that after the acute phase of an emergency is over, cash donations may be better than drug donations as that can be better targeted as needed. Many humanitarian organizations find that in emergencies they sometimes receive many items in excess, where cash donations may be better for it can help mobilize local resources as needed.
Of course, the problem of cash donations is corruption and misuse of such funds as well. However, as Wired also noted, this introduces a number of issues, such as:.
Yet, how far would drugs companies go to get their drugs approved and the prices they want? As the documentary said in their introduction, the implications are alarming and if their power remains unchecked, many more people will soon will be dying for drugs.
In Canada it revealed how a drug company attempted to silence a leading academic who had doubts about their drug. In South Korea it followed the attempts of desperately ill patients to make a leading drug company sell them the drugs they need to save their lives at an affordable price. This documentary therefore covered four basic areas:. Increasingly, the documentary highlighted, human trials without permission are taking place in the developing world, far away from scrutiny of European or American authorities.
The documentary focused in on a case in in a northern Nigerian town of Kano, already suffering from severe cholera and measles outbreaks. At that time, a third problem occurred: They moved fast and flew to Nigeria with a new drug, a potential life-saver and a potential billion dollar money spinner , Trovan.
Trovan had never been tested on children before, and Médicins Sans Frontiéres Doctors Without Borders, or MSF had been at the hospital that Pfizer came to, and had for a number of weeks been offering free life-saving treatments, successfully treating thousands of people.
Yet it turned out that Pfizer were doing human testing or experiments without the voluntary consent of patients, a violation of basic human rights:. But there was also apparent outright lying as well.
Not telling your test subjects what you are doing is a fundamental breach of medical ethics, but that was not the only charge. Unfortunately, as the documentary also noted, this is sadly far from unique. Several leading drug companies have also conducted questionable trials. Increasingly, in the poorer countries of the world. One explanation given by James Love also mentioned above on this page , Health Economist with the Consumer Project on Technology was due to lack of accountability.
This is a problem, he said, because you are operating in an environment where there is really very few people around to protect the patient. The United States had refused to license Trovan for use on children because of known side effects it caused.
As well as the issue of human experimenting without permission, the actions of Pfizer highlighted the various ways power could be exercised to deal with the controversy. But even where trials were going well but doctors had concerns about side-effects, pharmaceutical companies have used their power to try and stifle concerns and criticisms. The documentary moved on to talk about a situation in part of the wealthy world, Toronto, Canada, where even where trials were voluntary, doctors may have been pressured not to reveal concerns to their patients.
She came across a pill, L1, by a drug company called Apotex offered this alternative. They agreed to fund international trials, which went very well. Olivieri was chair of these worldwide trials. But she began to detect worrying effects. Professor, Sir David Weatherall, of the Weatherall Institute for Molecular Medicine at Oxford University, raised the issue of threats to academic freedom with this situation.
Also commenting on Dr. Drummond Rennie of the Journal of the American Medical Association added that, Apotex may disagree with her medical opinion, but they cannot disagree with her right and duty to tell her patients And so what they did was outrageous. People have to grasp that. As well as patients suffering, Dr. Olivieri was showing signs of strain and this was an example of the threat to doctors as well as impact on patients.
She was extremely frightened, extremely intimidated. All the while, concern about the effects of L1 were increasing. A panel of experts agreed with Dr. After a year of silence, she confided with a senior colleague who, with other colleagues lobbied the university for support in the battle against Apotex. Rennie, Because money tends to become the strings. THAT is the problem. You use it to smooth the way; to get your product out there; to influence people, to influence institutions, research institutions and specific scientists.
One of the first colleagues Dr Olivieri had confided in had received poison pen letters, with various threats. Under apparent pressure, the hospital fired Dr. But, intervention by a few key people led to her being reinstated. Apotex decided to move elsewhere. In Europe became the first territory to license L1 under the brand name Ferriprox. The issue raised was not if doctor was right or wrong, but really the premature licensing of a drug without proven safety.
The safety of this L1 drug had not been fully determined, and so this would not have been the time to release the drug. Apotex alleged that the trials Dr. Olivieri conducted were flawed, but this was proven wrong by independent verification. This whole process also took months away from Dr. The documentary highlighted that many other doctors had suffered similar problems in many situations, and their professional lives had been destroyed. Rennie also added, Dr.
Olivieri had a choice, and she took a courageous choice. Weatherall described her as a foremost person in this field that would be hard to replace. But as he also concluded, nobody seems to want to discuss these issues: But there are also other situations, where even if all these trial processes were going well, the issue of pricing beyond the ability of many patients had also been causing concern.
In the next example, the documentary highlighted how after successful trials, high pricing of drugs meant they were sometimes beyond the means of the very same patients in the trials who depended on those drugs. The case in question involved an innovative drug for a form of Lukemia, developed by Novartis, trialled successfully in South Korea, but the issue highlighted deeper political and economic problems.
Even though the trials were very successful the drug was approved in record time, for example , the eventual price of the drug was out of the reach for many, who ended up protesting on the streets. Yet, even with the Korean government helping with costs, many patients said they could not afford the drug. As Jamie Love commented, Products are priced according to what it is worth someone to get access to the drug. If it saves your life, it is worth quite a bit.
It is certainly worth everything you have. What the companies want to do is they want to say is this is how much a human life is worth and this is what our company wants to keep that life on. Commenting on why this was more than merely economic issues, Dr Drummond Rennie pointed out, Pharmaceuticals, they are a commodity.
But they are not just a commodity. There is an ethical side to this, because they are a commodity that you may be forced to take to save your life. And that gives them altogether a deeper significance. Indeed I believe that they often forget it completely. But high pricing for drugs are often controversial. As the documentary noted, Big pharma generally defends high prices for new drugs saying they have to cover costs for researching and developing new drugs. But in fact, most new drugs launched are just slight variations of existing medicines.
So called Me Toos. Commenting on this Nathan Ford, of Médicins Sans Frontiéres said, At the moment we are getting more and more drugs of less and less use. Me Too drugs; the tenth headache pills; the 15th Viagra. There are currently eight drugs in development at the moment for erectile dysfunction. Do we need 8 more drugs for erectile dysfunction? Ben Goldacre, in his book, Bad Science , Harper Perennial, , also adds that the number of me-too drugs has risen, making up to half of all new drugs.
They are merely a breakthrough in making money. As noted earlier on this page, this is related to how markets for pharmaceutical companies are not just about finding people to target, but people with money. All this touched deeper issues of intellectual property rights and international institutions such as the World Trade Organization WTO.
In June, , in Korea, leukemia patients turned to a lawyer who delivered a compulsory license application to the Korean authorities. A major source of cheaper generic drugs in Asia is India, which has a strong, established generics sector. Under Indian patent law, big pharmaceuticals have only been able to patent the production process, not the final product.
That is, only the way the product is made. This allows other companies to produce generic versions of the same product, using different processes.
Because CIPLA has been competing with other generic manufacturing companies this has also contributed to keeping prices down. This was less than one twentieth the Novartis price. But the compulsory license on which the deal depended to have these generic drugs available in Korea, was thrown out by the Korean authorities. Novartis still insisting on that 19 dollar price. Big pharmaceutical companies consider the generics companies as pirates, because of the threat to profits, and because they create the same end product without the amount of research and development effort that the big pharmaceuticals supposedly invest.
Yet, as detailed above, often, a lot of initial research and development has come from the public sector, and so some have considered the big pharmaceuticals to also be guilty of the accusations that they levy against generics companies. Under pressure from the large pharmaceutical companies, the WTO has decided that from end of next year, India must bring in full patent protection.
By destroying such competition, big pharmaceuticals, Dr. Rennie adds, will be able to charge anything. After 30 years of having drug prices undercut by India, they will once again have total control of supply.
Just a handful of manufacturers will have a lot of control. What worries me is the monolithic, overuse of power to push pills. That is not a future we should encourage.
It is the worst possible future. The documentary then moved on to show how these prices directly caused the death of a child in Honduras, suffering from AIDS, while activists resorted to breaking the law and attempted to smuggle cheaper drugs from across the border, where generic ones were being sold.
Even before rule changes, mentioned above, the power of big pharmaceuticals is already pervasive. The documentary followed a woman in Honduras forced to break the law by smuggling cheaper generic drugs across the Guatemalan border, in order to try and save lives. This just highlights how inequality and injustice is structured into law itself, to have to break it.
In Honduras, there is some degree of free health care. The documentary followed an activist trying to help a child dying of AIDS because the price of drugs was beyond the reach of the family. The child, a 12 year old by, was called Jairo. The pictures were quite disturbing, showing the child near the end of his life.
The situation was so urgent that the documentary crew offered to pay for some of the medicine that was needed and got a local specialist doctor in quickly. The doctor pointed out that the child was suffering from various illnesses that could be addressed using readily available though expensive drugs.
The few drugs that the family could afford was having distressing side-effects. One drug that the doctor suggested was owned by Pfizer and cost 27 dollars for just one tablet. The doctor highlighted that many of his patients are dying because of the high price of the drugs from Pfizer and others.
For over two years, he and others had been campaigning to get prices lowered, but to no avail. The documentary crew accompanied the activist to Guatemala, to smuggle in affordable drugs, even though this goes against trade laws. The generic version of that drug was just 30 cents, just over 1 percent of the Pfizer version. But the company making this in Guatemala has no license to make or sell it in Honduras.
By the time it took to get the drug, Jairo was getting a lot weaker. Nevada prisons drug buyer knew firms opposed execution use Nevada's prisons pharmacy chief says she ordered and obtained lethal injection drugs this year despite knowing drug manufacturers didn't want their FDA calls e-cigarettes 'an epidemic' among minors, cracks down on retailers The agency issued fines against retailers selling the e-cigs to minors.
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