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Potassium iodate is a source of iodine, an essential trace element, necessary for the body to make thyroid hormones. Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D in the human body. The presence of an acceptable nesting spot and nesting material always encourages breeding behavior. Maintains moisture, thickener, emulsifier, antioxidant, anticaking agent: But tinkering with the genetics of meat poses the same risks that genetic modification of any organism can hold. High dosages fed to rats reduced sperm production and increased cell proliferation in their testicles, which, at least at those dosages, could cause infertility or other problems.
With the Frank R. Opportunities to Address Perinatal Regulatory Needs. Abstracts submissions for FutureTox IV should relate to the development, utilization, or translation of 21st-century methodologies and data e.
Abstracts should relate to the topics and themes for this CCT meeting, as conveyed in the Background section of this website. Accepted abstracts will be displayed for the duration of the CCT meeting with poster presentations occurring in the late afternoon of November 14 and November Abstract submission is open to all attendees, and there is no fee associated with submission. The submission deadline is Wednesday, September 26, Graduate students and postdoctoral scholars are encouraged to submit abstracts.
Based on availability of funding, travel support will be provided to graduate students and postdoctoral scholars based on the merit of their submitted abstract and confirmation of their poster presentation at FutureTox IV. The inner cell mass is made up of the cells that are fated to become the actual baby. The trophectoderm cells make the fetal part of the placenta, which will nourish the growing baby. The epithelial cells lining the uterus are normally shed every month with the menstrual flow, unless the woman becomes pregnant.
If she is pregnant, the embryo produces a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin hCG , which signals the uterine lining to stay intact and flourish. The blastocyst embeds itself into the uterine lining and begins to burrow into the deeper cell layers to establish connections with the maternal blood system for nourishment. The uterus is where the embryo implants, forms a placenta and continues to grow until the uterus expels the baby at term.
Video of the Day. Hormones of the Female Reproductive System. Structures of the Female Reproductive System. Diseases of the Human Female Reproductive System. High Estrogen Signs and Symptoms in Men. Oligofructose, synthesized from sucrose or extracted from chicory roots, consists of up to several dozen fructose molecules linked end to end. Like inulin and other soluble fibers, oligofructose is digested by bacteria in the large intestine, but not by human enzymes.
This slightly sweet ingredient provides less than about half as many calories per gram as fructose or other sugar. Oligofructose promotes the growth of "good" bifidus bacteria. Pantothenic acid is one of the water-soluble B vitamins. Human deficiencies have never been observed.
Papain is a harmless enzyme obtained from papaya that is used to break down tough muscle protein in meat. Stick margarine, crackers, fried restaurant foods, baked goods, icing, microwave popcorn. Vegetable oil, usually a liquid, can be made into a semi-solid shortening by reacting it with hydrogen. Partial hydrogenation reduces the levels of polyunsaturated oils — and also creates trans fats, which promote heart disease. A committee of the U. Food and Drug Administration FDA concluded in that on a gram-for-gram basis, trans fat is even more harmful than saturated fat.
That finding encouraged a few food manufacturers to begin replacing hydrogenated shortening with less-harmful ingredients. Similarly, the Institute of Medicine advised consumers to consume as little trans fat as possible, ideally less than about 2 grams a day that much might come from naturally occurring trans fat in beef and dairy products. Harvard School of Public Health researchers estimate that trans fat had been causing about 50, premature heart attack deaths annually, making partially hydrogenated oil one of the most harmful ingredients in the food supply see discussion of salt.
Beginning in , Nutrition Facts labels have had to list the amount of trans fat in a serving. That spurred many more companies, including Frito-Lay, Kraft, ConAgra, and others, to replace most or all of the partially hydrogenated oil in almost all their products. Confusing label reading, though, is that foods labeled "0g trans fat" are permitted to contain 0.
Consumers need to read labels carefully for another reason: Restaurants, which do not provide nutrition information, were slower to change, but the pace of change has picked up. They use partially hydrogenated oil for frying chicken, potatoes, and fish, as well as in biscuits and other baked goods. Denmark virtually banned partially hydrogenated oil as of January 1, Later that year, the Center for Science in the Public Interest petitioned the FDA to require restaurants to disclose when they use partially hydrogenated oil and to begin the process of eliminating partially hydrogenated oil from the entire food supply.
While the FDA rejected the idea of requiring restaurants to disclose the presence of trans fat, New York City, Philadelphia, Boston, and other jurisdictions have set tight limits on the trans-fat content of restaurant foods.
In the FDA finally concluded that partially hydrogenated oil was no longer safe and gave the food industry three years to eliminate it from its products.
Pectin is a safe carbohydrate that strengthens cell walls in citrus fruits, apples, beets, carrots, and other fruits and vegetables. Pectin forms gels that are the basis of fruit jellies, and may be used to thicken barbeque sauce, cranberry sauce, canned frosting, and yogurt. Acidulant, chelating agent, buffer, emulsifier, nutrient, discoloration inhibitor: Baked goods, cheese, powdered foods, cured meat, soda pop, breakfast cereals, dehydrated potatoes.
Phosphoric acid acidifies and flavors cola beverages; the acidity erodes tooth enamel. Calcium and iron phosphates act as mineral supplements. Sodium aluminum phosphate is a leavening agent. Sodium acid pyrophosphate reduces levels of the carcinogen acrylamide in French fries, prevents discoloration in potatoes and sugar syrups, and prevents the formation of harmless mineral struvite crystals in canned seafood.
Most people consume far more phosphorus than they need, which may have adverse effects on kidney, bone, and cardiovascular health, especially for people suffering from kidney disease. Margarine, fruit juice, bread, dietary supplements. These substances are minor components of membranes in many nuts, seeds, vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables and other foods.
They are chemically related to cholesterol. They are more easily incorporated into foods other than fruit juices when they are converted to ester forms. They are not toxic, but they may reduce the body's absorption of nutrients called carotenoids that are thought to reduce the risk of cancer and heart disease. Reduced-calorie salad dressings, baked goods, candies, puddings, frozen desserts. Polydextrose is made by combining dextrose corn sugar with sorbitol.
The result is a slightly sweet, reduced-calorie only one calorie per gram because it is poorly digested bulking agent. The FDA requires that if a serving of a food would likely provide more than 15 grams of polydextrose, the label should advise consumers that "Sensitive individuals may experience a laxative effect from excessive consumption of this product.
PGPR is one of those mysterious chemicals that manufacturers use in food production. It stabilizes low-fat, high-water margarines and helps the "flow properties" in candy production. Baked goods, frozen desserts, imitation cream. Polysorbate 60 is short for polyoxyethylene- 20 - sorbitan monostearate. It and its close relatives, polysorbate 65 and 80, work the same way as mono- and diglycerides, but smaller amounts are needed.
They keep baked goods from going stale, keep dill oil dissolved in bottled dill pickles, help coffee whiteners dissolve in coffee, and prevent oil from separating out of artificial whipped cream. It is possible that polysorbates and other emulsifiers act like detergents to disrupt the mucous layer that lines the gut, and that the results of this study may apply to other emulsifiers as well.
Research needs to be done to determine long-term effects of these and other emulsifiers at levels that people consume. White flour, bread and rolls. This additive has long been used to increase the volume of bread and to produce bread with a fine crumb the not-crust part of bread structure.
Most bromate rapidly breaks down to form innocuous bromide. However, bromate itself causes cancer in animals. The tiny amounts of bromate that may remain in bread pose a small risk to consumers. Bromate has been banned virtually worldwide except in Japan and the United States. It is rarely used in California because a cancer warning might be required on the label. Since then, numerous millers and bakers have stopped using bromate. Calcium bromate, which likely is toxicologically similar to potassium bromate, occasionally may be used.
It also adds potassium to the diet, which provides an added benefit. The amount of potassium chloride used in foods is almost self-limiting, because most people perceive potassium chloride to taste extremely bitter.
People with kidney disease and certain heart conditions need to talk to their doctors about avoiding large amounts of potassium. Potassium iodate is sometimes used as a dough strengthener in bread and rolls. Some bakers may switch to this ingredient when they stop using its chemical cousin potassium bromate, which poses a small cancer risk.
However, potassium iodate, too, is not well tested and may also pose a slight cancer risk. It conceivably could lead to excessive iodine intake. Potassium iodate is a source of iodine, an essential trace element, necessary for the body to make thyroid hormones. But too little or too much iodine can be harmful.
A committee of the World Health Organization concluded that use of potassium iodate as a flour treatment agent was unacceptable because it could result in an excessive intake of iodine. At the same time, the committee endorsed the use of potassium iodate to fortify salt, since use in salt results in a lower intake of iodine than widespread use in bread and rolls and is used to prevent iodine deficiency disorders such as goiter and mental retardation, to name a few.
In the United States, potassium iodide, not potassium iodate, is used in iodized salt, but in other countries, especially tropical countries, potassium iodate is favored because it is more stable in warm, humid conditions.
Iodized salt has virtually eliminated iodine deficiency in the United States, Canada, and several other countries. Some people, such as those with thyroid disease, are especially sensitive to iodine intake and should make a special effort to avoid potassium iodate in bread and rolls. One other possible concern is that iodate breaks down in dough and in the body to form iodide. In a study conducted by Japanese government scientists, high doses of potassium iodide caused cancer in rats, suggesting it may be a weak carcinogen.
The same research found that it also increased the potency of a known carcinogen. As a sidelight, both potassium iodate and potassium iodide can also be used to prevent damage to the thyroid in the event of an accident at a nuclear reactor, although the iodide form is generally recommended. Potassium iodate is not widely used in baked goods, and any risk is small. Still, it may be worth choosing baked goods without this ill-tested additive, and bakers should stop using it.
Vegetable oil, meat products, potato sticks, chicken soup base, chewing gum. Propyl gallate retards the spoilage of fats and oils and is often used together with two other antioxidants, BHA and BHT, because of the synergistic effects those preservatives have with one another.
The best safety studies, which were published by the U. Propyl gallate appeared to cause more cancers in several organs in rats treated with a low dose than with either a zero dose the controls or a high dose.
That finding may be indicative of an "endocrine disruptor," as well as a carcinogen. This additive needs to be better studied. Maintains moisture, thickener, emulsifier, antioxidant, anticaking agent: Propylene glycol is used in a wide range of food products, often to maintain moisture, as well as thicken, emulsify, and preserve foods. It can also lower the freezing point of water, like its more toxic chemical cousin, ethylene glycol, used in antifreeze.
Some people are allergic to propylene glycol in foods, as well as in personal care products and topical cortisone creams, and should avoid it. Breakfast cereals, instant breakfasts, health-food bars. Pyridoxine, or vitamin B6, serves a variety of functions in the body and performs a central role in amino acid metabolism. Wheat germ, brown rice, and yeast are rich sources of pyridoxine. Tonic water, quinine water, bitter lemon. This drug can cure malaria and is used as a bitter flavoring in a few soft drinks.
In , the U. Food and Drug Administration banned quinine from over-the-counter drugs used to treat leg cramps, saying it was not safe and effective for that use.
Then in FDA ordered companies to stop marketing unapproved products containing quinine. And in and FDA warned against using the only approved quinine-containing anti-malaria drug for any purpose other than to treat malaria. The higher levels used in drugs are more likely to cause adverse reactions than the low levels used in food, but to be on the safe side, pregnant women and the elderly should avoid quinine-containing beverages. If you have experienced a reaction to Quorn foods, please file a report.
Enriched flour, breakfast cereals, and other vitamin-fortified foods. Riboflavin is simply vitamin B2. Riboflavin plays a crucial role in activating numerous enzymes.
Saccharin one brand is Sweet 'N Low is about times sweeter than sugar and is used in diet foods and as a packaged tabletop sugar substitute. Saccharin is the original artificial sweetener, having been discovered accidentally in at Johns Hopkins University. Many studies on rodents have shown that saccharin can cause cancer of the urinary bladder, especially in males. In some animal studies, saccharin also caused cancer of the uterus, ovaries, skin, blood vessels, and other organs.
Additional studies have shown that saccharin increases the potency of other cancer-causing chemicals. And the best epidemiology human study, which was conducted by the National Cancer Institute, found that the use of artificial sweeteners saccharin and cyclamate was associated with a higher incidence of bladder cancer. That said, other animal and human studies did not identify a cancer risk. In , the FDA proposed that saccharin be banned because of the studies showing that it causes cancer in animals.
However, Congress intervened and permitted it to be used, provided that foods carried a warning notice. In , the diet-food industry began pressuring the U.
The industry acknowledges that large amounts of saccharin cause bladder cancer in male rats, but argues that those tumors are caused by a mechanism that would not occur in humans. Some public health experts respond by stating that, even if that still-unproved mechanism was correct in male rats, saccharin could cause cancer by additional mechanisms and that, in some studies, saccharin has caused bladder cancer in mice and in female rats and other cancers in both rats and mice.
In May , the U. Department of Health and Human Services removed saccharin from its list of cancer-causing chemicals. Later that year, Congress passed a law removing the warning notice. Saccharin has been replaced in almost all foods by aspartame and other better-tasting sweeteners.
Coca-Cola Company's Tab, one of the first diet sodas, still contains saccharin, but now also contains aspartame. In , Health Canada lifted its decades-long ban on saccharin in foods, allowing it to be added to some beverages, canned fruits, frozen desserts, and other foods.
Saccharin passes into the breast milk of nursing mothers. Its use can enable companies to make reduced-calorie claims on their products. Salatrim's low calorie content results from its content of stearic acid, which the manufacturer says is absorbed poorly, and short-chain fatty acids, which provide fewer calories per unit weight. Critics have charged that it does not provide as big a calorie reduction as claimed by Nabisco.
Moreover, only very limited testing has been done to determine effects on humans. Eating small amounts of salatrim is probably safe, but large amounts 30g or more per day increase the risk of such side effects as stomach cramps and nausea. No tests have been done to determine if the various food additives salatrim, olestra, mannitol, and sorbitol that cause gastrointestinal symptoms can act in concert to cause greater effects.
Nabisco declared salatrim safe and has marketed it, as the law allows, without formal FDA approval. Nabisco has since sold salatrim to another company, Cultor. The FDA rejected that recommendation, but salatrim is not widely used, if at all. Most processed foods, cured meats, soup, snack chips, crackers, and others. Salt, at the levels present in the diets of most people around the world, is probably the single most harmful substance in the food supply.
Salt is used liberally in many processed foods and restaurant meals, with some meals containing far more than a day's worth of sodium. Other additives, such as monosodium glutamate and sodium benzoate, contribute additional sodium. Salt serves many purposes in foods, such as acting as a preservative, adding a salty flavor, masking bitter flavors, and fostering expected texture or other property.
A diet high in sodium increases blood pressure in most people, thereby increasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. In , the director of the U. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and two colleagues estimated that cutting the amount of sodium in packaged and restaurant foods by half would save , lives a year. Everyone should avoid salty processed foods and restaurant meals, use salt sparingly in cooking and at the table, and enjoy other seasonings.
The Food and Drug Administration considers salt to be "generally recognized as safe" GRAS , even though it recognizes that diets high in salt are a major cause of cardiovascular disease and even though its own advisory committee in concluded that salt should not be considered GRAS.
In response, the FDA held a public hearing in November, Meanwhile, the British government has made salt reduction one of its top health goals and has been having significant success.
Many companies defend the amounts of salt used, saying that using less would sacrifice taste or safety. However, comparisons of different brands of the same product frequently show wide differences in sodium content. That indicates that many companies could use less salt or other sodium-containing ingredients to the levels used by competitors and still have perfectly marketable products.
Seasoning, soup, snack chips, crackers, and other processed foods. Sea salt is obtained from the evaporation of sea water, unlike most table salt, which is mined from salt deposits, and then further processed to remove impurities.
Many sea salts have slightly different flavors than regular salt—due to their slightly different mineral content—but the typical variety used in processed foods does not. Sales of sea salt and sea-salted products are booming, and marketers would have you believe sea salt is a healthier, more natural form of salt. Although a majority of people surveyed by the American Heart Association believed sea salt was a lower-sodium alternative to table salt, sea salt has just as much sodium as table salt.
You can find lower-sodium sea salt and other salts; these are made by mixing the salt sodium chloride with potassium chloride and other ingredients. The trace amounts of magnesium, potassium, calcium, and other minerals in sea salt are so minor as to be insignificant to health.
However, some sea salts, as well as kosher salt which sometimes is from the sea , have larger crystal sizes with irregular shapes so they do not pack as tightly as table salt and therefore they have less sodium per teaspoon. Most people should consume less salt be it regular or sea salt , because diets high in sodium increase blood pressure and the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and kidney disease. This chemical is just sand. Silicon dioxide occurs naturally in foods, especially foods derived from plants.
Breathed in, silica dust can cause lung disease, even cancer. For use in food, it is finely ground and added to salt and other foods to help powders flow more easily. Aluminium calcium silicate and tricalcium silicate are also used in foods, and calcium silicate is used in some dietary supplements. Fruit juice, carbonated drinks, pickles. Manufacturers have used sodium benzoate and its close relative benzoic acid for a century to prevent the growth of microorganisms in acidic foods.
The substances occur naturally in many plants and animals. They appear to be safe for most people, though they cause hives, asthma, or other allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Another problem occurs when sodium benzoate is used in beverages that also contain ascorbic acid vitamin C or erythorbic acid also known as d-ascorbic acid. The two substances, in an acidic solution, can react together to form small amounts of benzene, a chemical that causes leukemia and other cancers.
Though the amounts of benzene that form are small, leading to only a very small risk of cancer, there is no need for consumers to experience any risk. In the early s the FDA had urged companies not to use benzoate in products that also contain ascorbic acid, but in the s companies were still using that combination. A lawsuit filed in by private attorneys ultimately forced Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, and other soft-drink makers in the U.
It has a vinegar flavor and can prevent the growth of mold and bacteria. Processed meat, beverages, baked goods, and potato salad. Chemically, sodium erythorbate is stereoisomer of ascorbic acid vitamin C , but it itself has no nutritional value. It is used most commonly in processed meats, where it retards nitrosamine formation and color fading.
Bacon, ham, frankfurters, luncheon meats, smoked fish, corned beef. Meat processors love sodium nitrite because it stabilizes the red color in cured meat without nitrite, hot dogs and bacon would look gray and gives a characteristic flavor. Sodium nitrate is used in dry cured meat, because it slowly breaks down into nitrite.
Adding nitrite to food can lead to the formation of small amounts of potent cancer-causing chemicals nitrosamines , particularly in fried bacon. Nitrite, which also occurs in saliva and forms from nitrate in several vegetables, can undergo the same chemical reaction in the stomach. Companies now add ascorbic acid or erythorbic acid to bacon to inhibit nitrosamine formation, a measure that has greatly reduced the problem.
While nitrite and nitrate cause only a small risk, they are still worth avoiding. Several studies have linked consumption of cured meat and nitrite by children, pregnant women, and adults with various types of cancer. In the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization, concluded that processed meat is carcinogenic to humans.
In CSPI petitioned the USDA to require a warning label on packages of bacon, ham, hot dogs, and other processed meat products to inform consumers that eating those foods can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. All consumers, including in particular pregnant women, would be prudent to avoid those products.
The meat industry justifies its use of nitrite and nitrate by claiming that it prevents the growth of bacteria that cause botulism poisoning.
Department of Agriculture has developed a safe method using lactic-acid-producing bacteria. Because nitrite is used primarily in fatty, salty foods, consumers have important nutritional reasons for avoiding nitrite-preserved foods. While those products may not contain added sodium nitrite, they sometimes are made with celery powder or celery juice, which are naturally high in nitrite. Prevents growth of mold: Cheese, syrup, jelly, cake, wine, dry fruits. Sorbic acid occurs naturally in many plants.
These additives are safe. Cakes, candy, frozen pudding, icing. Like mono- and diglycerides and polysorbates, this additive keeps oil and water mixed together. In chocolate candy, it prevents the discoloration that normally occurs when the candy is warmed up and then cooled down.
Sugar-free sweetener, thickening agent, maintains moisture: Frozen desserts, candy, shredded coconut, chewing gum, other sugar-free foods. Sorbitol, a sugar alcohol and close relative of sugar, occurs naturally in fruits and berries. It is sweet, but only half as sweet as sugar. It is non-cariogenic does not cause tooth decay and is used in chewing gum. Some diabetics use sorbitol-sweetened foods because it is absorbed slowly and does not cause blood sugar to increase rapidly.
Moderate amounts of sorbitol are safe, but large amounts may have a strong laxative effect and even cause diarrhea. The FDA requires foods "whose reasonably foreseeable consumption may result in a daily ingestion of 50 grams of sorbitol" to bear the label statement: Soup, gravy, frozen foods.
Starch, the major component of flour, potatoes, and corn, is used in many foods as a thickening agent. However, starch does not dissolve in cold water. Starch made from breeds of high-amylose corn is relatively resistant to digestion. That "resistant starch" has some of the same benefits of naturally occurring dietary fiber. Starch is made up of two large carbohydrate molecules. Amylose is insoluble carbohydrate made up of long chains of glucose molecules.
Amylopectin is a large, water-soluble, branched-chain polysaccharide that constitutes the other part of starch. Modified starches are used in processed foods to improve their consistency and keep the solids suspended. Starch and modified starches used to be used in baby foods to replace large percentages of more nutritious ingredients, such as fruit. The starches were eliminated when the Center for Science in the Public Interest charged that some baby foods contained only about 30 percent food such as strained bananas , with the rest being water, modified starch, and sugar.
Antioxidant, chewing gum base, Flavoring, anti-caking agent calcium stearate. Stearic acid is a fatty acid that occurs in virtually all fats. Though it is a saturated fat, it does not appear to affect blood cholesterol levels.
However, it might increase the risk of heart disease by raising fibrinogen levels and causing blood clots. The trivial amounts used as an additive are harmless. Also called rebiana, stevioside, rebaudioside A, rebaudioside D, etc. Stevia rebaudiana is a shrub yerba dulce that traditionally grew in Brazil, Paraguay, and even parts of Arizona. It is now grown commercially in California, China, southeast Asia, and elsewhere.
Stevia leaves are about 30 times as sweet as sugar, and contain sweet substances called steviol glycosides that are — times sweeter than sugar. Among the sweetest ones are rebaudioside A, also called reb A or rebiana, and stevioside. Companies are racing to market better-tasting extracts that have been dubbed rebaudioside D, M, X, and others. The food industry and many consumers who are trying to avoid sugar and artificial sweeteners have high hopes for stevia leaf extracts.
Crude stevia leaf extracts have long been used in Japan and several other countries. One flaw though, is that many people perceive stevia leaf and its sweet derivatives to have an unpleasant aftertaste, which companies are trying feverishly to overcome.
In the s, the FDA and Canada and the European Union rejected whole-leaf stevia and crude stevia extracts for use as a food ingredient. High dosages fed to rats reduced sperm production and increased cell proliferation in their testicles, which, at least at those dosages, could cause infertility or other problems. Pregnant hamsters that had been fed large amounts of a metabolite of stevioside called steviol had fewer and smaller offspring. In the laboratory, steviol can be converted into a mutagenic compound, which may promote cancer by causing mutations in the cells' DNA.
FDA also was concerned that stevia might interfere with the absorption of carbohydrates and the conversion of food into energy within cells, as well as with effects on cardiovascular and renal systems. In the early s, Cargill and Merisant a marketer of sugar substitutes developed highly purified extracts of stevia that are 95 percent pure rebaudioside A and times as sweet as sugar.
Since then, other companies have also developed highly purified extracts of stevia, some containing rebaudioside A and some containing stevioside. Truvia and Pure Via are the brand names for packaged or tabletop sweeteners containing mostly rebaudioside A, also called rebiana, and SweetLeaf is the brand name for packaged sweeteners containing both rebiana and stevioside. Thus, Truvia packets are mostly erythritol, PureVia mostly dextrose and cellulose powder, and SweetLeaf mostly inulin.
The one nagging concern other than taste about stevia leaf extracts is that they have not been adequately tested for cancer. Several but not all genetic tests found that rebiana-related substances caused mutations and other forms of genotoxicity.
Because such findings may indicate a cancer risk, that should have spurred the FDA to require additional animal feeding studies. Approved in the United States in , sucralose—sometimes marketed as Splenda—is used in soft drinks, baked goods, ice cream, and other products, including ones you might not expect, such as frozen dinners and English muffins.
It is widely used around the world. Unlike aspartame, sucralose does not break down at high temperatures and so can be used in baked goods. In an independent Italian laboratory published a large study on mice. The study found that sucralose caused leukemia and related blood cancers in male mice that were exposed to it throughout their lives starting from before birth.
The study is superior to previous industry-sponsored studies that did not find a link with cancer, since those tested fewer animals, started exposing the animals much later, and terminated the study earlier. In addition, treated animals in the industry-sponsored studies had significantly decreased body weight compared to controls, which can decrease cancer rates. This Italian lab is the same one that several years earlier published studies that found that aspartame caused cancers in rats and mice.
A study in rats had indicated that the additive might cause premature shrinkage of the thymus gland, which is part of the immune system. However, a subsequent study did not find any problem. Likewise, studies designed to detect whether sucralose could cause cancer in lab animals did not find any problems.
Several researchers contend that sucralose negatively impacts the gut, including changes in the microbiome and enzymes. That could have a range of consequences, including effects on blood sugar, regulation of body weight, inflammatory bowel disease, and how drugs and other chemicals are absorbed and metabolized by the body. For example, a study funded by the sugar industry reported that Splenda significantly reduced beneficial bacteria and had other effects in the gastrointestinal tract of rats that could affect the bioavailability of drugs.
Unfortunately, the study was small and had other significant shortcomings. However, finding a correlation is a long way from demonstrating a cause—effect relationship. Meanwhile, people experiencing IBD or other GI symptoms could see if avoiding sucralose provides any relief. For example, a 6-year old child weighing 45 pounds would exceed the FDA limit by drinking two or three ounce sodas containing the typical mg of sucralose per can. In addition, sucralose passes into breast milk at levels high enough to make the milk sweeter.
In fact, the sweetener is a synthetic chemical made by chemically reacting sugar sucrose with chlorine. The mere fact that sucralose is synthetic does not make it unsafe. Citrus-flavored beverages, including "energy," "sport," and "electrolyte" drinks, as well as such alcoholic beverages as wine coolers, malt beverage coolers, and premixed cocktail products.
Sucrose acetate isobutyrate SAIB , like brominated vegetable oil, is used primarily in citrus-flavored drinks to keep the flavor oils in suspension, giving them a cloudy appearance.
FDA has approved its use in non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages up to ppm. SAIB has been subjected to short- and long-term studies in laboratory animals and people, at high doses, with little, if any, evidence of harm. It is also approved for use in Europe. Table sugar, sweetened foods. Sucrose, ordinary table sugar, occurs naturally in fruit, sugar cane, and sugar beets.
Industry produced 68 pounds of sugar per person in That figure was down from pounds per year in , but the decrease has been more than made up for by increased use of high-fructose corn syrup and dextrose. In , industry produced a total of about pounds of total refined sugars per person, though because of waste and spoilage the average American actually consumed only about 76 pounds of all refined sugars about 1.
Sugar and sweetened foods may taste good and supply energy, but most people eat too much of them. Sugar, corn syrup, and other refined sweeteners make up 13 percent of the average diet, but provide no vitamins, minerals, or protein. That means a person would have to get percent of his or her nutrients from only 87 percent of his or her food. And, of course, some people, especially teen-aged boys, consume as much as 25 percent of their calories from refined sugars. When sugar is digested, it breaks down into one fructose and one glucose dextrose molecule.
Small amounts of fructose and glucose from fruits, vegetables, sugar, HFCS, or other sources are safe. However, large amounts of refined sugars promote tooth decay and displace nutrient-rich foods with empty calories. Also, recent studies show that consuming 25 percent of calories from fructose or HFCS which is about half fructose leads to more visceral deep belly fat or liver fat.
Finally, preliminary research suggests that large amounts of fructose may upset levels of such hormones as leptin and ghrelin, which regulate appetite, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity.
Some companies have been replacing high-fructose corn syrup with sugar, pretending that that makes their products more healthful. Dried fruit, wine, processed potatoes. Sulfiting agents prevent discoloration dried fruit, some "fresh" shrimp, and some dried, fried, or frozen potatoes and bacterial growth wine.
They also destroy vitamin B-1 and, most important, can cause severe reactions, especially in asthmatics. To non-sensitive individuals, sulfites are safe. If you think you may be sensitive, avoid all forms of this additive, because it caused at least twelve identifiable deaths in the s and probably many, many more in the preceding decades.
Deaths and less severe reactions were linked most commonly to restaurants foods. Sulfite levels in the lettuce and potatoes served at restaurants were often extremely high, because workers would allow the vegetable to sit in a sulfite solution for far too long a time. As a result of pressure from the Center for Science in the Public Interest CSPI , a congressional hearing, and media attention, the FDA banned the most dangerous uses of sulfites and required that wine labels list sulfite, when used.
Since those actions, CSPI has not been aware of any additional deaths. Breakfast cereals, cereal bars, diet and non-diet soft drinks, jelly, pudding, meal replacement drink mix, coffee mix powder, candy, chewing gum. This relatively new additive is chemically related to the mirror image of fructose, but is poorly absorbed by the body. That's why it yields only about one-third as many calories and why large amounts cause diarrhea, nausea, and flatulence.
In one study, 20 grams about five teaspoons caused nausea. Tagatose does not promote tooth decay. It is nearly 92 percent as sweet as sugar. Beverages, candy, ice cream, baked goods, yogurt, gelatin desserts, baking powder.
Tartaric acid occurs naturally in grapes, other fruits, and coffee beans. It has an extremely tart, acidic taste, which is useful in some foods. Most of the tartaric acid we ingest is digested by bacteria in the intestines. The 20 percent that is absorbed is rapidly excreted in the urine. When tartaric acid is partially neutralized with potassium hydroxide, the result is potassium acid tartrate, or cream of tartar.
Taurine occurs naturally in shellfish, other seafood, and meat. Companies add large amounts to energy drinks because it's supposedly energizing, but no credible evidence exists for that claim. There are no reports of harm from the taurine added to drinks.