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Standardized Outcomes Reporting in Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery
An Odd Kind of Fame: In many cases, this can mean no co-pay, nor does a deductible need to be met. Get enough sleep, practice stress reduction techniques like meditation or deep breathing exercises, avoid common endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as BPA, bromine, perchlorate, pesticides, PFCs, phthalates, and fluoride. Inferior cerebellar peduncle Vestibulocerebellar tract Medial longitudinal fasciculus Vestibulospinal tract Medial vestibulospinal tract Lateral vestibulospinal tract. Alpha-tocopherol significantly decreases circulating levels of gamma-tocopherol, decreasing its anti-inflammatory properties. Sometimes a small part of it passes through the digestive tract unchanged.

Metabolic Engineering

THE FLEXITARIAN WEIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Connectograms give a graphical representation of the neural connections of the brain. Differences in brain structure can be measured in some disorders, notably schizophrenia and dementia.

Different biological approaches using imaging have given more insight for example into the disorders of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. A key source of information about the function of brain regions is the effects of damage to them. Advances in neuroimaging have enabled objective insights into mental disorders, leading to faster diagnosis, more accurate prognosis, and better monitoring.

Bioinformatics is a field of study that includes the creation and advancement of databases, and computational and statistical techniques, that can be used in studies of the human brain, particularly in the areas of gene and protein expression.

Bioinformatics and studies in genomics , and functional genomics , generated the need for DNA annotation , a transcriptome technology , identifying genes , and their and location and function. As of , just under 20, protein-coding genes are seen to be expressed in the human, [] and some of these genes are brain-specific. The long term use of alcohol for example, has shown altered gene expression in the brain, and cell-type specific changes that may relate to alcohol use disorder.

Other related studies have also shown evidence of synaptic alterations and their loss, in the ageing brain. Changes in gene expression alter the levels of proteins in various pathways and this has been shown to be evident in synaptic contact dysfunction or loss. This dysfunction has been seen to affect many structures of the brain and has a marked effect on inhibitory neurons resulting in a decreased level of neurotransmission, and subsequent cognitive decline and disease.

Brain damage or injury to the brain can manifest in many ways. Traumatic brain injury , for example received in contact sport , after a fall , or a traffic or work accident , can be associated with both immediate and longer-term problems. Immediate problems may include bleeding within the brain , this may compress the brain tissue or damage its blood supply.

Bruising to the brain may occur. Bruising may cause widespread damage to the nerve tracts that can lead to a condition of diffuse axonal injury. In addition to the site of injury, the opposite side of the brain may be affected, termed a contrecoup injury. Longer-term issues that may develop include posttraumatic stress disorder , and hydrocephalus.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy can develop following multiple head injuries. Neurodegenerative diseases result in progressive damage to different parts of the brain's function, and worsen with age. Common examples include dementia such as Alzheimer's disease , alcoholic dementia or vascular dementia ; Parkinson's disease ; and other rarer infectious, genetic, or metabolic causes such as Huntington's disease , motor neuron diseases , HIV dementia , syphilis-related dementia and Wilson's disease.

Neurodegenerative diseases can affect different parts of the brain, and can affect movement, memory, and cognition. The brain, although protected by the blood—brain barrier, can be affected by infections including viruses , bacteria and fungi.

Infection may be of the meninges meningitis , the brain matter encephalitis , or within the brain matter such as a cerebral abscess. Brain tumours can be either benign or cancerous. Most malignant tumours arise from another part of the body , most commonly from the lung , breast and skin.

Meningioma , cancer of the meninges around the brain, is more common than cancers of brain tissue. A variety of other tests including blood tests and lumbar puncture may be used to investigate for the cause of the cancer and evaluate the type and stage of the cancer.

Surgery may be considered, however given the complex nature of many tumours or based on tumour stage or type, radiotherapy or chemotherapy may be considered more suitable.

Mental disorders , such as major depressive disorder , schizophrenia , bipolar disorder , post-traumatic stress disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , obsessive-compulsive disorder , Tourette syndrome , and addiction , are known to relate to the functioning of the brain.

Epileptic seizures are thought to relate to abnormal electrical activity. In a person with epilepsy , risk factors for further seizures may include sleeplessness, drug and alcohol intake, and stress.

Seizures may be assessed using blood tests , EEG and various medical imaging techniques based on the medical history and exam findings. Some brain disorders such as Tay—Sachs disease [] are congenital , [] and linked to genetic and chromosomal mutations.

A stroke is a decrease in blood supply to an area of the brain causing cell death and brain injury. This can lead to a wide range of symptoms , including the " FAST " symptoms of facial droop, arm weakness, and speech difficulties including with speaking and finding words or forming sentences. Difficulties with movement, speech, or sight usually relate to the cerebrum, whereas imbalance , double vision , vertigo and symptoms affecting more than one side of the body usually relate to the brainstem or cerebellum.

Most strokes result from loss of blood supply, typically because of an embolus , rupture of a fatty plaque or narrowing of small arteries. Strokes can also result from bleeding within the brain. Some treatments for stroke are time-critical.

These include clot dissolution or surgical removal of a clot for ischaemic strokes , and decompression for haemorrhagic strokes. Having experienced a stroke, a person may be admitted to a stroke unit , and treatments may be directed as preventing future strokes, including ongoing anticoagulation such as aspirin or clopidogrel , antihypertensives , and lipid-lowering drugs. Brain death refers to an irreversible total loss of brain function.

When brain death is suspected, reversible differential diagnoses such as hypothermia -induced coma, electrolyte, neurological and drug-related cognitive suppression need to be excluded.

Neuroanthropology is the study of the relationship between culture and the brain. It explores how the brain gives rise to culture, and how culture influences brain development.

The philosophy of the mind studies such issues as the problem of understanding consciousness and the mind—body problem. The relationship between the brain and the mind is a significant challenge both philosophically and scientifically.

This is because of the difficulty in explaining how mental activities, such as thoughts and emotions, can be implemented by physical structures such as neurons and synapses , or by any other type of physical mechanism. This difficulty was expressed by Gottfried Leibniz in the analogy known as Leibniz's Mill:. One is obliged to admit that perception and what depends upon it is inexplicable on mechanical principles, that is, by figures and motions.

In imagining that there is a machine whose construction would enable it to think, to sense, and to have perception, one could conceive it enlarged while retaining the same proportions, so that one could enter into it, just like into a windmill. Supposing this, one should, when visiting within it, find only parts pushing one another, and never anything by which to explain a perception.

Doubt about the possibility of a mechanistic explanation of thought drove René Descartes , and most other philosophers along with him, to dualism: There is clear empirical evidence that physical manipulations of, or injuries to, the brain for example by drugs or by lesions, respectively can affect the mind in potent and intimate ways. The size of the brain and a person's intelligence are not strongly related.

Other animals, including whales and elephants have larger brains than humans. However, when the brain-to-body mass ratio is taken into account, the human brain is almost twice as large as that of a bottlenose dolphin , and three times as large as that of a chimpanzee.

However, a high ratio does not of itself demonstrate intelligence: Research has disproved some common misconceptions about the brain. These include both ancient and modern myths. It is not true that neurons are not replaced after the age of two; nor that only ten per cent of the brain is used. Akio Mori coined the term game brain for the unreliably supported theory that spending long periods playing video games harmed the brain's pre-frontal region and the expression of emotion and creativity.

Historically, the brain featured in popular culture through phrenology , a pseudoscience that assigned personality attributes to different regions of the cortex. The cortex remains important in popular culture as covered in books and satire. The Edwin Smith Papyrus , an ancient Egyptian medical treatise written in the 17th century BC, contains the earliest recorded reference to the brain. The hieroglyph for brain, occurring eight times in this papyrus, describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and prognosis of two traumatic injuries to the head.

The papyrus mentions the external surface of the brain, the effects of injury including seizures and aphasia , the meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid. Aristotle , in his biology initially believed the heart to be the seat of intelligence , and saw the brain as a cooling mechanism for the blood.

He reasoned that humans are more rational than the beasts because, among other reasons, they have a larger brain to cool their hot-bloodedness. Their works are now mostly lost, and we know about their achievements due mostly to secondary sources. Some of their discoveries had to be re-discovered a millennium after their deaths. He concluded that, as the cerebellum was denser than the brain, it must control the muscles , while as the cerebrum was soft, it must be where the senses were processed.

Galen further theorized that the brain functioned by movement of animal spirits through the ventricles. In , Mondino de Luzzi 's Anathomia began the modern study of brain anatomy. René Descartes proposed the theory of dualism to tackle the issue of the brain's relation to the mind.

He suggested that the pineal gland was where the mind interacted with the body after recording the brain mechanisms responsible for circulating cerebrospinal fluid. Thomas Willis is considered a second pioneer in the study of neurology and brain science. In in Cerebri Anatome Latin: Anatomy of the brain , [c] followed by Cerebral Pathology in In these he described the structure of the cerebellum, the ventricles, the cerebral hemispheres, the brainstem, and the cranial nerves, studied its blood supply; and proposed functions associated with different areas of the brain.

In the late 19th century, Emil du Bois-Reymond and Hermann von Helmholtz , following the work of their teacher Johannes Peter Müller showed the electrical inpulses which pass along nerves; but unlike Müller's views, that such impulses were able to be observed. Studies of the brain became more sophisticated with the use of the microscope and the development of a silver staining method by Camillo Golgi during the s.

This was able to show the intricate structures of single neurons. He used microscopy to uncover many cell types, and proposed functions for the cells he saw. Charles Sherrington published his influential work The Integrative Action of the Nervous System examining the function of reflexes, evolutionary development of the nervous system, functional specialisation of the brain, and layout and cellular function of the central nervous system.

Schmitt , and Stephen Kuffler playing critical roles in establishing the field. The word neuroscience itself arises from this program. Paul Broca associated regions of the brain with specific functions, in particular language in Broca's area , following work on brain-damaged patients.

Carl Wernicke described a region associated with language comprehension and production. Korbinian Brodmann divided regions of the brain based on the appearance of cells. Harvey Cushing — is recognised as the first proficient brain surgeon in the world. The human brain has many properties that are common to all vertebrate brains. As a primate brain, the human brain has a much larger cerebral cortex, in proportion to body size, than most mammals, [] and a highly developed visual system.

As a hominid brain, the human brain is substantially enlarged even in comparison to the brain of a typical monkey. The sequence of human evolution from Australopithecus four million years ago to Homo sapiens modern humans was marked by a steady increase in brain size. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 September This article is about the human brain.

For information about brains in general, see Brain. List of regions in the human brain and Outline of the human brain. Neuroscience of sex differences. Structural and functional areas of the human brain. Human brain bisected in the sagittal plane , showing the white matter of the corpus callosum. Functional areas of the human brain.

Dashed areas shown are commonly left hemisphere dominant. Cerebrum and Cerebral cortex. Neural development in humans. Human brain development timeline. Brain of human embryo at 4. Brain interior at 5 weeks. Brain viewed at midline at 3 months. Language processing in the brain. Lateralization of brain function. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. List of neuroscience databases. Drawing of the base of the brain, from Andreas Vesalius 's work De humani corporis fabrica.

One of Leonardo da Vinci 's sketches of the human skull. Drawing by Camillo Golgi of vertical section of rabbit hippocampus , from his "Sulla fina anatomia degli organi centrali del sistema nervoso", Drawing of cells in chick cerebellum by Santiago Ramón y Cajal , from "Estructura de los centros nerviosos de las aves", Madrid, Evolution of the brain. Neuroscience portal Thinking portal. Archived from the original on October 24, Retrieved October 24, Archived from the original on October 2, The Journal of Neuroscience.

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According to this model, cerebrospinal fluid CSF enters the paravascular spaces surrounding penetrating arteries of the brain, mixes with interstitial fluid ISF and solutes in the parenchyma, and exits along paravascular spaces of draining veins. By measuring the lactate concentration in the brains and cervical lymph nodes of awake and sleeping mice, Lundgaard et al. Their analysis took advantage of the substantiated hypothesis that glymphatic function is promoted during sleep Xie et al.

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Handbook of Executive Functioning. In conditions in which prepotent responses tend to dominate behavior, such as in drug addiction, where drug cues can elicit drug seeking Chapter 16 , or in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD; described below , significant negative consequences can result. ADHD can be conceptualized as a disorder of executive function; specifically, ADHD is characterized by reduced ability to exert and maintain cognitive control of behavior.

Compared with healthy individuals, those with ADHD have diminished ability to suppress inappropriate prepotent responses to stimuli impaired response inhibition and diminished ability to inhibit responses to irrelevant stimuli impaired interference suppression.

Functional neuroimaging in humans demonstrates activation of the prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus part of the dorsal striatum in tasks that demand inhibitory control of behavior. Early results with structural MRI show a thinner cerebral cortex, across much of the cerebrum, in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls, including areas of [the] prefrontal cortex involved in working memory and attention.

Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved March 26, Archived from the original on January 27, Retrieved November 19, American Journal of Physiology. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types.

Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The amount of glucose in the blood is preserved at the expense of glycogen reservoirs Fig. It is now well established that both insulin and exercise cause translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. Except for the fundamental process of GLUT4 translocation, [muscle glucose uptake MGU ] is controlled differently with exercise and insulin.

Contraction-stimulated intracellular signaling 52, 80 and MGU 34, 75, 77, 88, 91, 98 are insulin independent. Moreover, the fate of glucose extracted from the blood is different in response to exercise and insulin 91, For these reasons, barriers to glucose flux from blood to muscle must be defined independently for these two controllers of MGU. Archived from the original on September 3, Retrieved May 9, Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: Uptake of valproic acid was reduced in the presence of medium-chain fatty acids such as hexanoate, octanoate, and decanoate, but not propionate or butyrate, indicating that valproic acid is taken up into the brain via a transport system for medium-chain fatty acids, not short-chain fatty acids.

Based on these reports, valproic acid is thought to be transported bidirectionally between blood and brain across the BBB via two distinct mechanisms, monocarboxylic acid-sensitive and medium-chain fatty acid-sensitive transporters, for efflux and uptake, respectively. Monocarboxylate transporters MCTs are known to mediate the transport of short chain monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate and butyrate. MCT1 and MCT4 have also been associated with the transport of short chain fatty acids such as acetate and formate which are then metabolized in the astrocytes [78].

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Learning Objectives After completing this continuing education course, nutrition professionals should be better able to:. Assess the potential benefits of anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients to clients and patients. Abdominal obesity has which of the following effects? It increases circulating levels of C-reactive protein CRP.

It decreases circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines. It decreases fat cell necrosis. It normalizes adipose cell adipokine activity. Foods rich in polyphenols help fight inflammation by which of the following mechanisms? They decrease anti-inflammatory cytokine production.

They inhibit enzymes involved in prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. They reduce omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratios. What are the two types of adaptive immunity?

Innate and receptive b. Humoral and cell mediated c. Antigenic and phagocytic d. Based on this article, which of the following statements about metabolic syndrome is true? Which of the following is true of prebiotics and probiotics, based on this article? Both are strains of lactobacillus bacteria.

Both are found in foods and are available as dietary supplements. Neither is effective in reducing gastrointestinal disease activity. Both can be obtained by eating cultured dairy foods. Which of the following are two examples of proinflammatory cytokines? CRP and serum amyloid A b.

Interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha c. Transforming growth factor beta and nuclear factor kappa B NF-kB d. Fibrinogen and clotting factor VII. Suppression of proinflammatory eicosanoids b. Conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid c. Strengthening of the gut mucosa d. Stimulation of collagen synthesis. Acute phase reactants are biomarkers of chronic inflammation. A positive acute phase reactant has which of the following effects?

Decreases during chronic inflammation b. Increases during chronic inflammation c. Increases when inflammation subsides d. Decreases when proinflammatory cytokines are released. A diet low in refined carbohydrate and that limits high glycemic index foods may reduce inflammation in which of the following ways? By stimulating interleukin 1 secretion b. By decreasing free radical production c.

By shutting off CRP synthesis in the liver d. By increasing NF-kB transcription factor activity. Which of the following causes difficulty in evaluating the effects of vitamin E on inflammation? Alpha-tocopherol enhances the activity of gamma-tocopherol. Few foods contain vitamin E. Vitamin E is poorly absorbed.

The vitamin E supplements evaluated in clinical trials typically are composed of only alpha-tocopherol. Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition. Atherosclerosis, cancer, wound healing, and inflammation—shared or parallel evolution. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease. Tian B, Brasier AR.

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Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress in a Swedish cohort. Gamma-tocopherol supplementation alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol alters biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

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