Nutrition & the Digestive System - Chapter Summary
The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Lactase aids the digestion of lactose, a sugar in milk that is often poorly digested. Here are 8 healthy fermented foods. View all practice tests in this course. Test your knowledge with a question chapter practice test.
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You will review accessory organs of the digestive system, the purpose of calories, and more from a mobile-friendly platform. After completing the chapter, you should be poised to do the following: Discuss macronutrients and recommendations for energy intake Describe what happens to food in the upper gastrointestinal tract Recall functions of the lower gastrointestinal tract List chemicals produced in accessory organs of the digestive system Explain how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion List general motility disorders Discuss the impact of eating too much or not enough protein Each video is accompanied by a full written transcript, which can be used for a text-based learning option.
Test your knowledge with a question chapter practice test. View all practice tests in this course. The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. Accessory Organs of the Digestive System Your pancreas, liver and gallbladder are accessory organs that help with the chemical digestion of food.
Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion.
Diarrhea and Constipation This lesson will discuss diarrhea and constipation. Health Effects Associated with Proteins If a diet is deficient in protein, it can lead to a type of protein-energy malnutrition PEM , such as kwashiorkor or marasmus. Nausea and Vomiting This lesson will explain what nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation are. Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam. Other Practice Exams in this course. Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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Thanks for your feedback! This is a tough one. The three parts, in sequence, of the small intestine, are the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Which of the following does NOT secrete digestive enzymes? The esophagus is a collapsible tube that transports anything that is swallowed from the pharynx the portion of the GI tract after the mouth to the stomach. This tube has no digestive function. However, the digestive enzymes from saliva conture to act while in the esophagus. These nerves penetrate into the solid structure of the tooth and this is why getting a cavity filled hurts.
Unlike other fruits, avocados are unique in that they are high in healthy fats and low in sugar. They contain the digestive enzyme lipase.
This enzyme helps digest fat molecules into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which are easier for the body to absorb However, taking a lipase supplement can help ease digestion, especially after a high-fat meal Avocados also contain other enzymes, including polyphenol oxidase. This enzyme is responsible for turning green avocados brown in the presence of oxygen 24 , Kefir is a fermented milk beverage that is popular in the natural health community. During fermentation, bacteria digest the natural sugars in milk and convert them into organic acids and carbon dioxide.
This process creates conditions that help the bacteria grow but also adds nutrients, enzymes and other beneficial compounds Kefir contains many digestive enzymes, including lipase, proteases and lactase 28 , 29 , Lactase aids the digestion of lactose, a sugar in milk that is often poorly digested. A study found that kefir improved lactose digestion in people with lactose intolerance Sauerkraut is a type of fermented cabbage that has a distinct sour taste.
The fermentation process also adds digestive enzymes, which makes eating sauerkraut a great way to increase your intake of digestive enzymes In addition to containing digestive enzymes, sauerkraut is also considered a probiotic food , as it contains healthy gut bacteria that boost your digestive health and immunity 33 , Just make sure to eat raw or unpasteurized sauerkraut rather than cooked sauerkraut. High temperatures may deactivate its digestive enzymes.
As with sauerkraut and kefir, the fermentation process adds healthy bacteria, which provide nutrients, enzymes and other benefits Kimchi contains bacteria of the Bacillus species, which produce proteases, lipases and amylases. These enzymes digest proteins, fats and carbs, respectively 40 , Aside from aiding digestion, kimchi has been linked to many other health benefits.
It may be especially effective at lowering cholesterol and other heart disease risk factors In a study in young, healthy participants, scientists found that those who ate the most kimchi experienced the greatest reduction in total blood cholesterol.
Elevated total blood cholesterol is a risk factor for heart disease Miso is a popular seasoning in Japanese cuisine. Koji adds a variety of digestive enzymes, including lactases, lipases, proteases and amylases 46 , 47 , In fact, studies have shown that the bacteria in miso can reduce symptoms linked to digestive problems, such as irritable bowel disease IBD Moreover, fermenting soybeans helps improve their nutritional quality by reducing their antinutrient content.
Antinutrients are compounds found naturally in foods that may hinder the absorption of nutrients by binding to them The kiwifruit is an edible berry that is often recommended to ease digestion This enzyme helps digest proteins and is commercially used to tenderize tough meats 52 , Additionally, kiwifruit contains many other enzymes that help ripen the fruit An animal study found that adding kiwifruit to the diet improved the digestion of beef, gluten and soy protein isolates in the stomach.