Post-workout “anabolic window of opportunity”
In this same study of cyclists, van Loon et al. Kindle Edition Verified Purchase. What about meal frequency? Rather, the focus should be on the composition of the gain or loss. And then, only if you need to, consider adding some basic nutrient timing. Because glycogen repletion perseveres, part of the goal during this phase is to exploit this process for as long as possible.
Ivy and Portman emphasize the importance of nutrient delivery and of sparing carbohydrate and protein, limiting immune suppression, minimizing muscle damage and setting the stage for faster postworkout recovery.
Glucose, derived from glycogen its stored form in liver and muscle or blood glucose, is an essential fuel source for activity. Succinct recommendations for carbohydrate intake during the energy phase or during activity are difficult to nail down. Research supports the use of carbohydrate during activity, but the amount and form required are still foggy. The results showed that the carbohydrate drinks produced performance improvements and higher plasma glucose levels, without differences among the types of carbohydrate administered Murray et al.
A scientific review by Jeukendrup concluded that performance benefits could be found when subjects ingested as little as 16 grams g of carbohydrate per hour—with the type consumed appearing to have little effect on the benefit Ingestion of protein during the energy phase may be advantageous when provided in addition to carbohydrate.
Their findings revealed a benefit to including carbohydrate and protein, over just carbohydrate, at minute intervals during 3 hours of cycling at varying intensities on three separate occasions. The differences could not be attributed to differences in insulin responses, however, leaving the researchers curious about the improvement in performance Ivy et al. Irrefutable recommendations for ingesting protein during exercise remain elusive owing to lack of research. Ivy and Portman summarize the characteristics and goals of this phase as 1 a shift from catabolism to anabolism; 2 enhancement of muscle blood flow; 3 replenishment of glycogen stores; 4 repair and growth of tissue; and 5 reduction of muscle damage and bolstering of the immune system Immediately following exercise, a myriad of factors create an environment for glycogen repletion and muscle tissue growth and repair.
After exercise, the body is primed to replenish its glycogen stores, and protein repair and synthesis are required Levenhagen et al. Insulin sensitivity is improved because of an increase in glucose transport into the cells via a specific glucose carrier GLUT-4 , and the activity of the enzyme glycogen synthase is increased to promote glycogen synthesis Richter et al.
Ingesting carbohydrate after exercise increases the amount and rate of glycogen storage Zawadzki et al. A combination of protein and carbohydrate replenishes muscle glycogen more rapidly than does carbohydrate alone Ivy et al.
The rate of glycogen repletion may also be enhanced by increasing the carbohydrate content. Van Loon et al. In this same study of cyclists, van Loon et al. The increase in insulin sensitivity appears to be best exploited by feeding carbohydrate and protein at 2-hour intervals following activity Ivy et al. It is unclear exactly how long the benefits persist, but Richter et al.
The second objective in the anabolic phase is to create an environment conducive to muscle repair and growth. The carbohydrate and protein supplement produced higher levels of insulin and growth hormone, creating a more favorable environment for growth.
All three supplements blunted testosterone, however, and showed no difference in effect on IGF For reasons not related to the increase in insulin as with the aforementioned data , protein supplementation immediately following exercise also aids in muscle hypertrophy Esmarck et al.
The growth phase can best be summed up as the remainder of the day after training. In the initial hours of this phase, the body is still in the postexercise mode. Because glycogen repletion perseveres, part of the goal during this phase is to exploit this process for as long as possible. In addition, enhancing muscle protein synthesis and muscle growth is important. In addition, further evidence supports consuming protein and carbohydrate prior to exercise to enhance postexercise protein synthesis Tipton et al.
Feeding muscle growth and repair, as well as maintaining optimal glycogen stores, is imperative during the growth phase.
Achieving a positive nitrogen balance during this time by providing adequate protein will aid in muscle gains Phillips The following summary can help you educate clients by training type —beginning with the what and how much, and leading into the when. What and How Much to Eat. For example, an active lb athlete needs approximately 3,—3, calories per day to maintain weight and — g of carbohydrate.
Diets consistently high in carbohydrate—versus those high in fat—have been shown to delay time to exhaustion during exercise Kleiner An in-depth review of protein requirements for endurance athletes by Tarnopolsky recommends 0. For instance, an endurance-trained lb athlete needs 70—98 g of protein per day e.
Susan Kundrat, MS, RD, LD, owner of Nutrition on the Move in Urbana, Illinois, and author of Sports Nutrition Tips, recommends assessing what is best tolerated before a workout or competition and building the meal or snack around high-carbohydrate foods.
At 3 hours prior to a competition or training session, 1. Planning a meal or snack before exercise is especially important, chiefly if exercising early in the morning.
Based on the foregoing, as little as 16 grams of carbohydrate per hour appears to provide performance benefits Jeukendrup Other sources recommend upward of 30—60 g per hour Kundrat Therefore, an exact number of grams cannot be determined. Refueling with carbohydrate after a workout is essential. An absolute recommendation is to consume at least 50 g of carbohydrate and 10—15 g of protein with fluid within 15—30 minutes after the session Kundrat Relative to body weight, 0.
The combination of protein and carbohydrate can be found in a sports drink plus an energy bar; apple juice and a peanut butter sandwich; a milkshake; yogurt and juice; or 2 cups of corn flakes and 1 cup of low-fat milk. What and How Much. Bodybuilders are rightfully not shy about consuming calories. Kundrat advises all athletes working toward muscle growth to combine their workout with 3,—4, extra calories per week when trying to maximize muscle growth. Whether the goal is to build muscle or enhance muscle definition, protein is important for the maintenance, repair and construction of muscle.
However, contrary to popular practices, a diet extremely high in protein is not necessary. Recommendations for protein vary depending on the source and research.
Kleiner advises approximately 0. For a lb woman, this means 78— g of protein per day. For vegetarians, increasing that to 1. Ivy and Portman recommend 0. A review by Phillips points out that the average reported protein intake among strength athletes is 0. Athletes might try a pita pocket with hummus or a bagel with low-fat cream cheese and some dried fruit.
Carbohydrate ingestion during a heavy resistance workout can help sustain muscle glycogen levels Haff et al. However, bodybuilders should be careful not to overconsume calories if weight is a concern Kleiner To date, there is little evidence that protein ingestion during a workout offers an athletic edge. I am not sure to where whether a strength athlete would benefit more from taking thes This is a practical book that indicates the importance of nutrient timing on the optimization of muscle and strength gain.
I am not sure to where whether a strength athlete would benefit more from taking these supplements than not. It is a trade-off you will have to take for yourself as the gains for the protein and carbohydrate supplements have been firmly evidenced over normal healthy whole-foods nutrition. It is an effort to establish this regime with a full working day job. But I can imagine that a few months down the line, it will be more than worth it.
And this book is well-written and persuasive in its tone. I commend this book for those both interested in becoming stronger athletes or for those interested in understanding their physique. Dec 03, Jason rated it it was amazing. Excellent source of information for those of you who are interested in the science of food and how our bodies use it. Pair this book with any exercise physiology class and nutrition class you will be very well informed.
This book has aided my pursuit and love of health, physical activity and well being. I read this book well before I decided to become a Health and Fitness Teacher. Surprisingly I still remember a lot of the information I learned in this book Awesome read- I recommend it to any aspiring professional in the exercise world. Nov 28, Jeff rated it it was amazing. This book discusses the timing of consuming specific nutrients in conjunction with your workouts for optimal recovery and improved body composition.
An area I completely overlooked before reading this book, the timing of your nutrients could be beneficial and there are studies that provide evidence to the Authours' claims.
John Ivy, who has extensive research on exercise and nutrition, provides supplemental advice throughout the book. I would recommend this book to athletes, weight trainers This book discusses the timing of consuming specific nutrients in conjunction with your workouts for optimal recovery and improved body composition.
Oct 17, Troy Arris is currently reading it. Technical book on nutrients and the proper time to feed yourself before, during, and after a workout. All together I'm using them as reference material to build my food strategy - now if only I stick to the plan lol. Sep 30, Pete rated it liked it. I really like the information in this book when I started reading it.
The concepts of "when" and "what" to eat before, during, and after exercise were very good. Unfortunately, the concepts got slightly repetitive throughout the book and I think it could have been condensed into a smaller book or even web or magazine article. Just a solid supplement to any strength training program for endurance or muscle building. No sales pitches for products. Just how to get the right nutrients into your body to maximize your workout. Aug 19, Ryan rated it did not like it. It's ok, seems like they just want to sell product.
Dec 11, Blair Armstrong rated it really liked it. John Ivy dispels the myths and shares the facts that every one of us should employ but seem to forget. Joseph Milton Wills rated it really liked it Feb 26, Stjepan rated it really liked it Jun 07, Stephen Sharkey rated it liked it Dec 27, Pafupafu rated it really liked it Jan 28, Sadie Giampietri rated it really liked it Aug 24, David Andrews rated it really liked it Jan 14, Shawn Tweedt rated it it was amazing Jul 27, Jean rated it really liked it Jun 29, Erica rated it it was amazing Oct 08, James Mullins rated it really liked it Feb 18, Ashley Buchanan Welborn rated it liked it Oct 30, Tom Hippensteel rated it it was amazing Mar 05,