Benefits and harms of statin therapy for persons with chronic kidney disease: Private health expenditure is the sum of outlays for health by private entities, such as commercial or mutual health insurance providers, non-profit institutions serving households, resident corporations and quasi-corporations not controlled by government involved in health services delivery or financing, and direct household out-of-pocket payments. ACE inhibition for severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia - an approach based on physiology. These national plans have explicit general goals with an order of magnitude for expected reductions in malnutrition levels or improvements in various sectors. As a result of that uneven income growth, the share of total after-tax income received by the 1 percent of the population in households with the highest income more than doubled between and , whereas the share received by low- and middle-income households declined…. For example, the report adds that in many developing cities, wealthier citizens live in private spaces and may even avoid visiting or walking around in city centers.
Alternate Text Missing
National Autism Association website. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Updated March 29, Accessed April 20, Chlorpyrifos dursban -associated birth defects: Mercury exposure, nutritional deficiencies, and metabolic disruptions may affect learning in children. Sorting out the spinning of autism: Acta Neurobiol Exp Wars.
Genetic heritability and shared environmental factors among twin pairs with autism. Parental age and autism spectrum disorders. Relationships between multiple births and autism spectrum disorders, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disabilities: Maternal infection requiring hospitalization during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. An Epidemic of Absence: Nutritional intake and therapies in autism: Infant, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition.
Olfaction and taste processing in autism. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms. Swanson JM, Kinsbourne M. Food dyes impair performance of hyperactive children on a laboratory learning test. The monosodium glutamate symptom complex: J Allergy Clin Immunol. Prevalence of food additive intolerance. Food additives and hyperactivity.
The potential toxicity of artificial sweeteners. Fatty acids in ADHD: Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation in children with autism: Plasma fatty acid levels in autistic children. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. Role of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of Egyptian children with autism. Internet survey of treatments used by parents of children with autism.
Patrick L, Salik R. Essential fatty acids and phospholipase A2 in autistic spectrum disorders. Johnson SM, Hollander E. Evidence that eicosapentaenoic acid is effective in treating autism.
Autism and vitamin D. Vitamin D Council website. Updated August 22, Neonatal jaundice, autism, and other disorders of psychological development.
Complementary and alternative medicine treatments for children with autism spectrum disorders. Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse: N Engl J Med. J Am Osteopath Assoc.
Cellular and mitochondrial glutathione redox imbalance in lymphoblastoid cells derived from children with autism. Effectiveness of N,N-Dimethylglycine in autism and pervasive developmental disorder. A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders. Weber W, Newmark S. Pediatr Clin North Am.
The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: Nutritional interventions and therapies in autism: Spontaneous mucosal lymphocyte cytokine profiles in children with autism, and gastrointestinal symptoms: Neuroglial activation and neuroinflammation in the brain of patients with autism.
Cohly HH, Panja A. Immunological findings in autism. Evaluation of an association between gastrointestinal symptoms and cytokine production against common dietary proteins in children with autism spectrum disorders. Learning Objectives After completing this continuing education activity, nutrition professionals should be able to: Define the three types of autism spectrum disorder ASD.
Assess the various problem-eating behaviors associated with ASD. Develop strategies to eliminate problem-eating behaviors. Employ the various nutritional therapies to treat ASD patients. None of the above 2. All of the above 8. A near genius IQ 9. Great Valley Publishing Company, Inc. The greater the prevalence of zinc supplementation during diarrhoea treatment, the better the outcome of treatment for diarrhoea. WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund UNICEF recommend exclusive breastfeeding, vitamin A supplementation, improved hygiene, better access to cleaner sources of drinking-water and sanitation facilities and vaccination against rotavirus in the clinical management of acute diarrhoea and also the use of zinc, which is safe and effective.
Specifically, zinc supplements given during an episode of acute diarrhoea reduce the duration and severity of the episode, and giving zinc supplements for days lowers the incidence of diarrhoea in the following months.
Currently no data are available. The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity. Report of a workshop to review the results of three large studies. Geneva , World Health Organization, Children aged months receiving v itamin A supplements. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one and two doses of vitamin A supplements, respectively.
The indicators are defined as the proportion of children aged months who received one or two high doses of vitamin A supplements within 1 year.
Current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every months for all children between the ages of 6 and 59 months living in affected areas. The recommended doses are IU for month-old children and IU for those aged months.
Programmes to control vitamin A deficiency enhance children's chances of survival, reduce the severity of childhood illnesses, ease the strain on health systems and hospitals and contribute to the well-being of children, their families and communities. The World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of efforts to improve child survival and therefore of the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal, a two-thirds reduction in mortality of children under 5 by the year As there is strong evidence that supplementation with vitamin A reduces child mortality, measuring the proportion of children who have received vitamin A within the past 6 months can be used to monitor coverage with interventions for achieving the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.
Supplementation with vitamin A is a safe, cost-effective, efficient means for eliminating its deficiency and improving child survival. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. These indicators are the proportion of children aged months who received one or two doses of vitamin A supplements. The indicator reflects the proportion of babies born in facilities that have been designated as Baby-friendly.
Proportion of births in Baby-friendly facilities is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. This indicator is defined as the proportion of babies born in facilities designated as Baby-friendly in a calendar year.
To be counted as currently Baby-friendly, the facility must have been designated within the last five years or been reassessed within that timeframe.
Facilities may be designed as Baby-friendly if they meet the minimum Global Criteria, which includes adherence to the Ten Steps for Successful Breastfeeding and the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.
The Ten steps include having a breastfeeding policy that is routinely communicated to staff, having staff trained on policy implementation, informing pregnant women on the benefits and management of breastfeeding, promoting early initiation of breastfeeding, among others. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes restricts the distribution of free infant formula and promotional materials from infant formula companies.
The more of the Steps that the mother experiences, the better her success with breastfeeding. Improved breastfeeding practices worldwide could save the lives of over children every year. National implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.
Implementation of the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative. Mothers of children months receiving counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers.
Optimal practices include early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months followed by appropriate complementary with continued breastfeeding for 2 years or beyond. Even though it is a natural act, breastfeeding is also a learned behaviour. Virtually all mothers can breastfeed provided they have accurate information, and support within their families and communities and from the health care system.
This indicator has been established to measure the proportion of mothers receiving breastfeeding counselling, support or messages. The proportion of mothers of children months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the previous 12 months is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The indicator gives the percentage of mothers of children aged months who have received counselling, support or messages on optimal breastfeeding at least once in the last year.
Counseling and informational support on optimal breastfeeding practices for mothers has been demonstrated to improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding, which in has many health benefits for both the mother and infant.
Breast milk contains all the nutrients an infant needs in the first six months of life. Breastfeeding protects against diarrhoea and common childhood illnesses such as pneumonia, and may also have longer-term health benefits for the mother and child, such as reducing the risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence.
Breastfeeding has also been associated with higher intelligence quotient IQ in children. Salt iodization has been adopted as the main strategy for eliminating iodine-deficiency disorders as a public health problem, and the aim is to achieve universal salt iodization.
While other foodstuffs can be iodized, salt has the advantage of being widely consumed and inexpensive. Salt has been iodized routinely in some industrialized countries since the s. This indicator is a measure of whether a fortification programme is reaching the target population adequately.
The indicator is a measure of the percentage of households consuming iodized salt, defined as salt containing parts per million of iodine. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with thyroid problems e. Consumption of iodized salt increased in the developing world during the past decade: This means that about 84 million newborns are now being protected from learning disabilities due to iodine-deficiency disorders.
Monitoring the situation of women and children. Sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders by Micronutrient deficiencies, iodine deficiency disorders. Population with less than the minimum dietary energy consumption.
This indicator is the percentage of the population whose food intake falls below the minimum level of dietary energy requirements, and who therefore are undernourished or food-deprived. The estimates of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO of the prevalence of undernourishment are essentially measures of food deprivation based on calculations of three parameters for each country: The average amount of food available for human consumption is derived from national 'food balance sheets' compiled by FAO each year, which show how much of each food commodity a country produces, imports and withdraws from stocks for other, non-food purposes.
FAO then divides the energy equivalent of all the food available for human consumption by the total population, to derive average daily energy consumption. Data from household surveys are used to derive a coefficient of variation to account for the degree of inequality in access to food. Similarly, because a large adult needs almost twice as much dietary energy as a 3-year-old child, the minimum energy requirement per person in each country is based on age, gender and body sizes in that country.
The average energy requirement is the amount of food energy needed to balance energy expenditure in order to maintain body weight, body composition and levels of necessary and desirable physical activity consistent with long-term good health. It includes the energy needed for the optimal growth and development of children, for the deposition of tissues during pregnancy and for the secretion of milk during lactation consistent with the good health of the mother and child.
The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group is the mean energy requirement of the healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group. FAO reports the proportion of the population whose daily food intake falls below that minimum energy requirement as 'undernourished'.
Trends in undernourishment are due mainly to: The indicator is a measure of an important aspect of food insecurity in a population. Sustainable development requires a concerted effort to reduce poverty, including solutions to hunger and malnutrition. Alleviating hunger is a prerequisite for sustainable poverty reduction, as undernourishment seriously affects labour productivity and earning capacity. Malnutrition can be the outcome of a range of circumstances.
In order for poverty reduction strategies to be effective, they must address food access, availability and safety. Rome, October The State of Food Insecurity in the World Economic growth is necessary but not sufficient to accelerate reduction of hunger and malnutrition. FAO methodology to estimate the prevalence of undernourishment. FAO, Rome, 9 October This indicator gives the prevalence of people living in extreme poverty, as measured by their daily income, and allows comparisons and aggregation of data on the progress of countries in reducing extreme poverty and allows monitoring of global trends.
As this poverty line has fixed purchasing power across countries or areas, it is often called the 'absolute poverty line'. Measures of poverty in countries are generally based on national poverty lines. Comparisons of poverty measures within countries are also difficult, especially for urban-rural differences.
As the cost of living is typically higher in urban than in rural areas, the urban monetary poverty line should be higher than that for rural areas. The difference between the two in practice, however, may not properly reflect the difference in cost of living.
Mal nutrition is the single one of the most important risk factor for disease. When poverty is added, it results in a downward spiral that may end in death. Turning the tide of mal nutrition. Responding to the challenge of the 21st century.
Washington DC, World Bank. Millennium Development Goals indicators series metadata. Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals.
New York , United Nations, Infant and young child feeding. The recommendations for feeding infants and young children 6—23 months include: The caring practice indicators for infant and young child feeding available on the NLIS country profiles include: Early initiation of breastfeeding. This indicator is the percentage of infants who are put to the breast within 1 hour of birth.
Breastfeeding contributes to saving children's lives, and there is evidence that delayed initiation of breastfeeding increases their risk for mortality. Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed.
This indicator is the percentage of infants aged 0—5 months who are exclusively breastfed. It is the proportion of infants aged 0—5 months who are fed exclusively on breast milk and no other food or drink, including water.
The infant is however, allowed to receive ORS and drops and syrups containing vitamins, minerals and medicine. Exclusive breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing the ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants; it is also an integral part of the reproductive process, with important implications for the health of mothers.
An expert review of evidence showed that, on a population basis, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is the optimal way of feeding infants. Breast milk is the natural first food for infants. It provides all the energy and nutrients that the infant needs for the first months of life. Breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases.
Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, and leads to quicker recovery from illness. Breastfeeding contributes to the health and well-being of mothers, by helping to space children, reducing their risks for ovarian and breast cancers and saving family and national resources.
It is a secure way of feeding and is safe for the environment. Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. WHO recommends starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age. It is defined as the proportion of infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods. When breast milk alone no longer meets the nutritional needs of the infant, complementary foods should be added. This is a very vulnerable period, and it is the time when malnutrition often starts, contributing significantly to the high prevalence of malnutrition among children under 5 worldwide.
Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity. As per revised recommendation by TEAM in June , dietary diversity is present when the diet contained five or more of the following food groups: Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet. This indicator is the percentage of children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet.
Proportion of children aged months who receive a minimum acceptable diet is included as a process indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. The composite indicator of a minimum acceptable diet is calculated from: Dietary diversity is present when the diet contained four or more of the following food groups: The minimum daily meal frequency is defined as: A minimum acceptable diet is essential to ensure appropriate growth and development for feeding infants and children aged 6—23 months.
Without adequate diversity and meal frequency, infants and young children are vulnerable to malnutrition, especially stunting and micronutrient deficiencies, and to increased morbidity and mortality. Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators. Infant and Young Child Feeding database.
Infant and young child feeding list of publications. Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework. Children with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding. This indicator is the prevalence of children with diarrhoea who received oral rehydration therapy and continued feeding.
It is the proportion of children aged months who had diarrhoea and were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution and continued feeding. As oral rehydration therapy is a critical component of effective management of diarrhoea, monitoring coverage with this highly cost-effective intervention indicates progress towards the child survival-related Millennium Development Goals.
Health expenditure includes that for the provision of health services, family planning activities, nutrition activities and emergency aid designated for health, but excludes the provision of water and sanitation. Health financing is a critical component of health systems. National health accounts provide a large set of indicators based on information on expenditure collected within an internationally recognized framework.
National health accounts consist of a synthesis of the financing and spending flows recorded in the operation of a health system, from funding sources and agents to the distribution of funds between providers and functions of health systems and benefits geographically, demographically, socioeconomically and epidemiologically.
General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure is the proportion of total government expenditure on health.
General government expenditure includes consolidated direct and indirect outlays, such as subsidies and transfers, including capital, of all levels of government social security institutions, autonomous bodies and other extrabudgetary funds. It consists of recurrent and capital spending from government central and local budgets, external borrowings and grants including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations and social or compulsory health insurance funds.
GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. Public health expenditure consists of recurrent and capital spending from government central and local budgets, external borrowings and grants including donations from international agencies and nongovernmental organizations and social or compulsory health insurance funds. Private health expenditure is the sum of outlays for health by private entities, such as commercial or mutual health insurance providers, non-profit institutions serving households, resident corporations and quasi-corporations not controlled by government involved in health services delivery or financing, and direct household out-of-pocket payments.
These indicators reflect total and public expenditure on health resources, access and services, including nutrition. Although increasing health expenditures are associated with better health outcomes, especially in low-income countries, there is no 'recommended' level of spending on health. The larger the per capita income, the greater the expenditure on health. Some countries, however, spend appreciably more than would be expected from their income levels, and some appreciably less.
When a government spends little of its GDP or attributes less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutrition , are not regarded as priorities. National health accounts - World Health Statistics, http: Human development report http: Core health indicators http: Human development report indicator glossary for indicator 3. Wealth, health and health expenditure. General government expenditure on health as a percentage of total government expenditure is defined as the level of general government expenditure on health GGHE expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure.
The indicator contributes to understanding the weight of public spending on health within the total value of public sector operations. It includes not just the resources channelled through government budgets but also the expenditure on health by parastatals, extrabudgetary entities and notably the compulsory health insurance. The indicator refers to resources collected and pooled by public agencies including all the revenue modalities. The indicator provides information on the level of resources channelled to health relative to a country's wealth.
These indicators reflect government and total expenditure on health resources, access and services, including nutrition, in relation to government expenditure, the wealth of the country, and per capita. When a government attributes less of its total expenditure on health, this may indicate that health, including nutrition , are not regarded as priorities. UNDAFs usually focus on three to five areas in which the country team can make the greatest difference, in addition to activities supported by other agencies in response to national demands but which fall outside the common UNDAF results matrix.
For each national priority selected for United Nations country team support, the UNDAF results matrix gives the outcome s , the outcomes and outputs of other agencies working alone or together, the role of partners, resource mobilization targets for each agency outcome and coordination mechanisms and programme modalities.
The nutrition component of the UNDAF reflects the priority attributed to nutrition by the United Nations agencies in a country and is an indication of how much the United Nations system is committed to helping governments improve their food and nutrition situation. The indicator is "strong", "medium" or "weak", depending on the degree to which nutrition is being addressed in the expected outcomes and outputs in the UNDAF.
UNDAF documents follow a predefined format, with a core narrative and a results matrix. The matrix lists the high-level expected results 'the UNDAF outcomes' , the outcomes to be reached by agencies working alone or together and agency outputs. The results matrix the UNDAF document was used to assess commitment to nutrition , because it represents a synthesis of the strategy proposed in the document and is available in the same format in most country documents.
The outcomes and outputs specifically related to nutrition were identified and counted. The outputs were compared with the evidence-based interventions to reduce maternal and child under nutrition recommended in the Lancet Nutrition Series Bhutta et al. The method and scoring are described in detail by Engesveen et al. What are the implications? A weak nutrition component in the UNDAF document does not necessarily imply that no United Nations agency in the country is working to improve nutrition ; however, unless such efforts are mentioned in strategy documents like the UNDAF, they may receive inadequate attention from development partners to ensure the necessary sustainability or scale-up to adequately address nutrition problems in the country.
The multisectoral nature of nutrition means that it must be addressed by a wide range of actors. Basing such action in frameworks for overall development contributes to ensuring the accountability of United Nations partners. Interventions for maternal and child under nutrition and survival.
The Lancet Engesveen K et al. SCN News , Nutrition component of poverty reduction strategy papers. The poverty reduction strategy approach was introduced in to empower governments to set their own priorities and to encourage donors to provide predictable, harmonized assistance aligned with country priorities. The PRSP should state the development priorities and specify the policies, programmes and resources needed to meet the goals.
It is prepared by governments in a participatory process involving civil society and development partners, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and should result in a comprehensive, country-based strategy for poverty reduction. The indicator is "strong", "medium" or "weak", depending on the degree to which nutrition is addressed in the PRSP, in terms of recognition of under nutrition as a development problem, use of information on nutrition to analyse poverty and support for appropriate nutrition policies, strategies and programmes.
The papers were systematically searched for key words to identify the parts that concerned nutrition , food security , health outcomes and interventions that would be relevant for the World Bank method. In order to classify the commitments to nutrition in the PRSPs, a scoring system was developed, which is described in more detail by Engesveen et al.
The emphasis given to nutrition in PRSPs reflects the extent to which the government considers it essential to improve nutrition for poverty reduction and national development.
In other words, it can be an indication of the government's priority for improving nutrition. A strong nutrition component in a PRSP means that the government considers nutrition a priority for poverty reduction and national development.
A weak nutrition component in the document does not necessarily imply that no government department is working to improve nutrition ; however, unless such efforts are mentioned in strategy documents like PRSPs, they may not be sufficiently sustainable or be scaled-up to adequately address nutrition problems in the country.
Basing such action in frameworks for overall development contributes to ensuring the accountability of relevant government departments. Sources and further reading. Poverty reduction strategy papers. Assessing countries' commitment to accelerate nutrition action demonstrated in poverty reduction strategy paper, UNDAF and through nutrition governance. SCN News , , Shekar M, Lee Y-K. Mainstreaming nutrition in poverty reduction strategy papers: What does it take?
A review of the early experience. Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper, Landscape analysis on countries' readiness to accelerate action in nutrition , This indicator is a description of the strengths and weaknesses of various aspects of nutrition governance in countries.
The following 10 elements or characteristics are used to assess and describe the strength of nutrition governance: These elements were identified by countries as key elements for successful development and implementation of national nutrition policies and strategies during a review of the progress of countries in implementing the World Declaration and Plan of Action for Nutrition adopted by the International Conference on Nutrition, the first intergovernmental conference on nutrition Nishida et al.
The components of the composite indicator have been identified by countries as important for determining the completeness of national nutrition plans and policies Nishida, Mutru, Imperial Laue , For instance, a national nutrition plan and policy was considered to provide the political basis for initiating action.
In many countries, official government endorsement or adoption of a national nutrition plan or policy facilitated its implementation. The role of an intersectoral coordinating committee in implementing national nutrition plans and policies was also considered crucial, although the nature i. While this phenomenon is rarely discussed in the U. These are times when the welfare state is failing people because it gives people a false sense of security and uses an element of coercion payment of taxes to pay for the services.
Yet, at the same time, the documentary noted, what is making this situation more complicated is that the super rich are taking advantage of globalization and all the loop holes it provides, such as off-shore tax havens.
As a result, there is less the state is able to do, leading to further frustrations. At the same time, in U. This is in response to the increase in crime, an effect of inequality. But this has important implications. However, policing is meant to be more than protecting things of material value; the police are supposed to have social and human concerns for society as well, something a private security firm neither is mandated to have, nor is usually created for.
Due to the different roles, the costs, structures and accountability are also different. If crime is perceived to be increasing and the police are not seen as trusted, people can, and do take actions into their own hands. Wealthier people of course can afford to take more measures. In theory then, one of the many things that makes up a functioning, stable and democratic society is an uncorrupted judicial system and law enforcement.
Addressing the root causes of inequality would therefore seem to be where the challenge lies. The political costs of inequality are recognized and accepted as being too high. The economic costs of fighting effects are also high.
Citing some research, the BBC also noted that for each dollar spent on poverty causes, seven dollars was saved on consequences. Unfortunately, governments are in a difficult situation, because they can try to address inequality, but they will anger the rich.
In May , the BBC aired another documentary related to inequality, called The Experiment , where they showed in detail how inequality can turn good people to evil. Inequality is also characterized by a concentration of wealth, which means a concentration of political power. Historically, one of the main reasons for continued poverty has been in order to maintain this power.
In the developing world, there is a pattern of inequality caused by the powerful subjugating the poor and keeping them dependent. Outside influence is often a large factor and access to trade and resources is the usual cause. It is often asked why the people of these countries do not stand up for themselves. In most cases when they do, they face incredible and often violent oppression from their ruling elites and from outsiders who see their national interests threatened. Everyone has the right to work, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection for himself and his family [and] an existence worthy of human dignity … Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care.
And contrast that with the following around the same time, from a key superpower that helped create the United Nations. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better. We should make a careful study to see what parts of the Pacific and Far Eastern world are absolutely vital to our security, and we should concentrate our policy on seeing to it that those areas remain in hands which we can control or rely on.
While it is recognized that strong institutions, a functioning and non-corrupt democracy, an impartial media, equitable distribution of land and a well structured judicial system and other such factors , etc.
Often, it can be a very large sector. For example, those likely to lose out in such an equalizing effect are the rich, elite power holders.
This is a pattern seen throughout history. Take for example the medieval days of Europe where the wealthy of the time controlled land via a feudal ruling system and hence impoverished the common people intentionally. Trading superiority was maintained by raiding and plundering areas deemed as a threat. Summarizing from the works of the Institute for Economic Democracy:.
The discovery of the Americas, expansion of trade routes etc brought much wealth to these centers of empire which helped fuel the industrial revolution, which required even more resources and wealth to be appropriated, to continue this growth. Mass luxury consumption in Europe expanded as well as a result of the increased production from the industrial revolution.
But this had a further negative impact on the colonized nations, the country side , or the resource-providers. For example, to keep profits up and costs down, they used slavery where they could, sometimes transferring people across continents, introducing others when indigenous populations had either been wiped out, decimated, or proved too resistant in some way.
Europeans also carved out artificial borders to reflect their territorial acquisitions, sometimes bringing different groups of people into the same borders that had never been forced to live together in such short times. Some poorer countries today still suffer the effects of this. Many Europeans and their descendants around the world have tried to look back at history and ask how it was that Europe and the West prospered and rose to such prominence. The late Professor J.
Race and Christianity in particular, Protestantism were often claimed to be a factor, too. Blaut Guilford Press, Except for religious conflicts and the petty wars of feudal lords, wars are primarily fought over resources and trade. Is there any man, is there any woman, let me say any child here that does not know that the seed of war in the modern world is industrial and commercial rivalry?
Plundering the countryside to maintain dominance and control of the wealth-producing process has been an age-old process. These mercantilist processes continue today. Those policies of plunder by raid have continued, but include a more sophisticated plunder by trade:. The powerful and cunning had learned to plunder by trade centuries ago and societies ever since have been caught in the trap of those unequal trades.
Once unequal trades were in place, restructuring to equal trade would mean the severing of arteries of commerce which provide the higher standard of living for the dominant society and collapse of those living standards would almost certainly trigger open revolt. The world is trapped in that pattern of unequal trades yet today.
The geopolitical events of the post World War II era have been crucial for their impacts on poverty and most other issues. Virtually the entire colonial world was breaking free, its resources would be turned to the care of its own people, and those resources could no longer be siphoned to the old imperial-centers-of-capital for a fraction of their value.
What Western nations were observing, of course, was the same potential loss of the resources and markets of their countryside as the cities of Europe had experienced centuries earlier. The domestic prosperity worried about was only their own and the constantly expanding trade were unequal trades maintaining the prosperity of the developed world and the impoverishment of the undeveloped world as the imperial-centers-of-capital siphoned the natural wealth of their countryside to themselves.
The managers-of-state had to avert that crisis. While European nations are now more cooperative amongst themselves in comparison to the horrors of World War II and the U. Prosperity for a few has increased, as has poverty for the majority. Structural Adjustment SAP , as described in a previous section on this web site, is an example of that dependency.
Neoliberal economic ideology has been almost blindly prescribed to poor countries to open up their economies. The idea is that opening markets for foreign investment will also help improve exports and contribute to economic growth. Cutting back on social spending e. But what ends up happening is the poorer nations lose their space to develop their own policies and local businesses end up competing with well-established multinationals, sometimes themselves subsidized hinting a more mercantilist economic policy for the rich, even though free market capitalism is the claim and the prescription for others.
Hence, many back the economic neoliberal policies without realizing the background to it. It is another example that while international trade and globalization is what probably most would like to see, the reality of it is that it is not matching the rhetoric that is broadcast. The Third World remains poor because the powerful strive to dominate every choke-point of commerce. One key choke-point is political control through the co-respective support of local elites.
Where loyalty is lacking, money will be spent to purchase it. If a government cannot be bought or otherwise controlled, corrupt groups will be financed and armed to overthrow that government and, in extreme cases, another country will be financed to attack and defeat it.
An enormous proportion of the income of nations and individuals, nowadays, is blood money: Therefore the most prudent nation is the nation which is in the best position to levy blackmail. To find out more about the political dimensions of the economy of the world and to see the detailed links between history how it is both told and repeated , politics that are always at play and the effects on the economy the world over, visit the Institute for Economic Democracy web site.
It provides much more in-depth research into these backgrounds and in far more detail than what I have summarized above. With this in mind, why would so many people not oppose such things? There are many reasons, including:. The smart way to keep people passive and obedient is to strictly limit the spectrum of acceptable opinion, but allow very lively debate within that spectrum—even encourage the more critical and dissident views.
Besides the necessity of a job or other source of income for survival, people need to feel that they are good and useful to society. Few even admit, even to themselves, that their hard work may not be fully productive. This emotional shield requires most people to say with equal sincerity that those on welfare are lazy, ignorant, and nonfunctional.
Those above the poverty level vigorously insist that they are honest and productive and fulfill a social need. It is important to their emotional well-being that they believe this. They dare not acknowledge that their segment of the economy may have 30 to 70 percent more workers than necessary or that the displaced should have a relatively equal share of jobs and income. This would expose their redundancy and, under current social rules, undermine their moral claim to their share.
Such an admission could lead to the loss of their economic niche in society. They would then have to find another territory within the economy or drop into poverty themselves.
Smith, quoted above, also points out and details in his work how we have moved from plunder by raid to plunder by trade in recent centuries. And societies are so accustomed to long struggles for improved living standards that to think it could be done much faster seems irrational.
Governments now do this more than ever because the poor are rooted, stationary, slow ; whereas the big money is nomadic and travels at the speed of bytes. Stationary money of local businesses, professionals, wage and salary earners will be taxed to the limit for the simple reason that it can be got at.
The World Bank is a major international institution involved in poverty and development. It has the capacity to lend a lot of money and expertise to developing countries and advise on development matters. The Bank regards this as its flagship report. Most mainstream economists use this report in some way or form, and it is one of the few reports on development that the US mainstream media reports on because it usually shows the US, and its policies that it prescribes to the rest of the world, in a favorable light.
For the report, Ravi Kanbur, a professor from Cornell University had been asked to lead up the report team. Kanbur won respect from NGO circles as he tried to be inclusive and take in a wide range of views, something the Bank has been criticized for not doing which is a problem in itself!
However, as the report was to be published, he resigned because he was unreasonably pressured by the Bank to tone down sections on globalization, which, amongst other things called for developing nations to accept market neoliberalism cautiously. The World Bank was apparently influenced itself by the US Treasury on this—this is not new though; critics have long pointed out that the Bank is very much influenced by the US, thus affecting the chance of real progress being made on poverty issues around the world.
The following quotes collected from the Bretton Woods Project, reveal some interesting insights:. The Washington Consensus has emerged from the Asia Crisis with its faith in free markets only slightly shaken. Poverty eradication is now the menu, but the main dish is still growth and market liberalisation, with social safety nets added as a side dish, and social capital scattered over it as a relish.
The overall implication of the resignation is fairly clear. The US does not want the World Bank to stray too far from its agenda of economic growth and market liberalisation. To keep the Bank afloat Wolfensohn has to steer between two major constituencies. The first are the critics, the second is the US Treasury. The World Bank has often come under criticism for its development projects not actually helping the societies that they claimed they will.
One such example is the numerous dam projects that have seen lives devastated, where millions have been displaced and people have not seen the benefits promised, while at the same time, the environment has degraded and crucial arable land has been flooded. These have had devastating consequences for much of the third world, though benefiting the First World.
Another example involves a recent Chad-Cameroon oil pipeline project , which started construction in The World Bank had also stressed commitments to ensure policies were observed that would protect society and the environment, while helping millions of poor in Chad out of extreme poverty Chad is the fifth poorest country in the world and also providing land-locked Cameroon with much needed revenue.
However their participation and stated commitment to poverty-combating development gave political backing that allowed multinational oil companies who were the main investors to raise sufficient capital on the international capital markets, which they would not have been able to otherwise do. The World Bank had therefore highlighted this project as a prototype for the extractive industry, designed to carry oil wealth not to a few but to the mass of the poor.
AfricaFiles is an organization about African issues from the perspective of human rights, economic justice, and African perspective and alternative analysis. AfricaFiles also, interestingly, suggested the World Bank use its precious resources to support more renewable energy sources development rather than oil, which has had so much political, economic and environmental problems associated with it.
This was also a recommendation from a report commissioned by the World Bank itself, which has not been followed. In mid, the committee set up to oversee transparency in the oil revenues in Chad has protested about the lack of resources from both the government and the oil company involved , and that people in Chad were becoming disillusioned at the project.
Nearby fisherman and farmers have also been denied access to water and land, and that there is a prevailing climate of fear and intimidation around the pipeline, some of whose critics have already been arrested and intimidated. The Chad government argued it needed to fight against poverty now and had a right to that revenue and signed a law allowing access to that account early. Earlier, the World Bank had suspended some loans, too.