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September 13 at In some cases, the host does not read the lineup and only the music plays. I received the highest credentials in Gemology when I received my G. Unless we confront those feelings directly and treat them with the same seriousness as we treat the bombing of Hanoi, paralysis by the former will prevent us from retaliating effectively against the latter. I love that my The more one knows about how things work, the more politically effective one can be. Sonia Bitton has the sweetest soul and means so much to me.
Part I. The Tyranny of Tyranny
By , the west river bank had twenty-three businesses, including mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes. Due to the hazards of milling, six local sources of artificial limbs were competing in the prosthetics business by the s. The farmers of the Great Plains grew grain that was shipped by rail to the citys thirty-four flour mills, a father of modern milling in America and founder of what became General Mills, Cadwallader C.
Some ideas were developed by William Dixon Gray and some acquired through industrial espionage from the Hungarians by William de la Barre, pillsbury Company across the river were barely a step behind, hiring Washburn employees to immediately use the new methods. The hard red spring wheat that grows in Minnesota became valuable, not until later did consumers discover the value in the bran that Minneapolis.
As of , the estimated population was , Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota. The city lies mostly on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Minneapolis, the states largest city. Known as the Twin Cities, the two form the core of Minneapolis—Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the Dakota name for Saint Paul is Imnizaska.
Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government, regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, and for the Science Museum of Minnesota. As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its Twin City, Minneapolis, is known for its literacy rate.
It was the city in the United States with a population of , or more to see an increase in circulation of Sunday newspapers in Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until , the Mdewakanton Dakota and they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
Following the Louisiana Purchase in , a U. Army officer named Zebulon Pike negotiated approximately , acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in in order to establish a fort. The negotiated territory was located on banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, the Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U.
Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south, fur traders, explorers, and missionaries came to the area for the forts protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians who lived nearby, however, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
United States — Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean.
It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15, years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast.
On July 4,, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in , after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties.
During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in left the United States as the sole superpower. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP.
In , the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci. Digital terrestrial television — Digital terrestrial television is a technological evolution of broadcast television and an advancement over analog television. A terrestrial implementation of digital television uses a aerial to broadcast to a conventional television antenna instead of a satellite dish or cable television connection.
In general, a 64QAM channel is capable of transmitting a bit rate. Instead, the ATSC standard calls for 8VSB modulation, which has similar characteristics to the vestigial sideband modulation used for analog television. DTTV is received either via a digital set-top box, TV gateway or integrated tuner included with television sets, some set-top-boxes and TV gateways include digital video recorder functionality.
This is quite common in the UK, see external links, indoor aerials are even more likely to be affected by these issues and possibly need replacing. Currently the terrestrial transmission is available in digital and analog formats. The new service which is operated by the Second Authority for Radio, according to government decisions, the system will expand to include two additional multiplexes that will carry new channels and HD versions of the existing channels.
Ultra high frequency — Ultra high frequency is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between MHz and 3 GHz, also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimetre. Radio waves in the UHF band travel almost entirely by propagation and ground reflection, there is very little reflection from the ionosphere. They are blocked by hills and cannot travel far beyond the horizon, atmospheric moisture reduces, or attenuates, the strength of UHF signals over long distances, and the attenuation increases with frequency.
UHF TV signals are generally more degraded by moisture than lower bands, occasionally when conditions are right, UHF radio waves can travel long distances by tropospheric ducting as the atmosphere warms and cools throughout the day. The length of an antenna is related to the length of the radio waves used, the UHF antenna is stubby and short, at UHF frequencies a quarter-wave monopole, the most common omnidirectional antenna is between 2.
UHF is widely used in telephones, cell phones, walkie-talkies and other two-way radio systems from short range up to the visual horizon. Omnidirectional UHF antennas used on mobile devices are usually short whips, higher gain omnidirectional UHF antennas can be made of collinear arrays of dipoles and are used for mobile base stations and cellular base station antennas.
The short wavelengths also allow high gain antennas to be conveniently small, high gain antennas for point-to-point communication links and UHF television reception are usually Yagi, log periodic, corner reflectors, or reflective array antennas.
At the top end of the band slot antennas and parabolic dishes become practical, for television broadcasting specialized vertical radiators that are mostly modifications of the slot antenna or helical antenna are used, the slotted cylinder, zig-zag, and panel antennas.
UHF television broadcasting fulfilled the demand for additional over-the-air television channels in urban areas, today, much of the bandwidth has been reallocated to land mobile, trunked radio and mobile telephone use.
UHF channels are used for digital television. UHF spectrum is used worldwide for mobile radio systems for commercial, industrial, public safety. Program and System Information Protocol — PSIP defines virtual channels and content ratings, as well as electronic program guides with titles and descriptions to be decoded and displayed by the ATSC tuner.
It is the second largest provider of Spanish content nationwide behind American competitor Univision, Telemundo is headquartered in the Miami suburb of Hialeah, Florida, and has 1, employees worldwide. The majority of Telemundos programs are filmed at a studio facility in Miami.
S, Ramos wanted to maintain a consistent branding for his media properties based around the mundo theme, and chose to brand his new television property as Telemundo.
The station was known for its fingers logo — a bold number 2 with the silhouette of two upright fingers inside the number — and referred to itself as El canal de los dedos. The new corporation quickly went public, and in , Reliance decided to rebrand NetSpan as Telemundo, later that year, it purchased additional stations in San Francisco, Houston and San Antonio.
In May , Telemundo underwent another management change, appointing former Univision president Joaquin Blaya — who resigned from that network after discovering in an FCC filing for A. The following year in , Telemundo underwent a rebranding, introducing the signature framed T letter logo.
The network also began to produce its own telenovelas, the first of which to premiere were Angélica, mi vida, Marielena, Guadalupe, Señora Tentación. International distributors soon approached the network for the rights to air these programs on television networks in other countries. In , under the direction of executive president of programming Harry Abraham Castillo. His s telecast was transmitted to over 3, stations and he currently owns and operates the SonLife Broadcasting Network.
Sexual scandals with prostitutes in the late s and early s led the Assemblies of God to defrock him, as a result of the scandals, Swaggart temporarily stepped down as the head of Jimmy Swaggart Ministries. Swaggarts TV ministry, which began in , continues airing in the U. He is the cousin of rocknroll pioneer Jerry Lee Lewis and country music star Mickey Gilley and he also had a sister, Jeanette Ensminger.
With his parents, Swaggart attended a small, member Assemblies of God church in Ferriday, in , aged 17, Swaggart married year-old Frances Anderson, whom they met in church, while he was playing music with his father. Together, the couple have a son named Donnie, Swaggart worked several part-time odd jobs in order to support his young family and also began singing Southern Gospel music at various churches. According to his autobiography Swaggart, along with his wife and son, lived in poverty during the s as he preached throughout rural Louisiana, being too poor to own a home, the Swaggarts lived in church basements, pastors homes, and small motels.
Sun Records producer Sam Phillips wanted to start a line of music for the label. Although the offer meant a promise for significant income for him and his family, Swaggart turned Phillips down, preaching from a flatbed trailer donated to him, Swaggart began full-time evangelistic work in He began developing a following throughout the American South. In , he began recording gospel music albums and transmitting on Christian radio stations. In , Swaggart was ordained by the Assemblies of God, in the late s Swaggart began transmitting a weekly minute telecast over various local television stations in Baton Rouge and also purchased a local AM radio station, WLUX.
The station broadcast Christian feature stories, preaching and teaching from various fundamentalist and Pentecostal denominations and played black gospel, Southern gospel, as Contemporary Christian music became more prevalent, the station avoided playing it. Swaggart sold many of his radio stations throughout the s. Jimmy Swaggart Ministries still operates several stations that operate under the name Sonlife Radio.
Evine — Evine is an American cable, satellite and broadcast television network. ValueVision was founded in June and began broadcasting in , in , NBC purchased a share of the company. ValueVision acquired NBCUniversals financial stake in the company in , Mark Cubans American Dream aired on the network in , and was part of a plan under the Clinton Group management to feature more celebrity hosts.
Bozek felt a rebranding of the service would distance it from its negative consumer perceptions as ShopHQ. It also sells products on its website, Evine. The network converted to an standard definition widescreen presentation in the fall of On its website, the network had announced that it would launch in October Sony Pictures already maintains programming distribution agreements with Antenna TV and Movies, which allows those networks to carry films from the Sony library, in addition to a distribution deal with Antenna TV to broadcast television series to which Sonys television unit holds rights.
S,29 Sinclair stations added the network on July 1, with the others beginning to carry GetTV by the end of September WMIN was reassigned to the kHz frequency in when a treaty was negotiated to reduce interference between American radio stations and those from other regions. Noted jazz announcer Leigh Kamman started his career in broadcasting at the station around this time, for many years, the stations transmitter and single tower have enjoyed an enviable location in the center of the metro area.
It is plainly visible to travelers on Interstate Highway 94, the studios, at least in the s and s, were also located at this address. WMIN would eventually sign on another station, at They were changed back to WMIN the following August, in , after dabbling with country music for the past three years, they took on the format full-time. The AM station would air a beautiful music format identical to their FM counterpart by They aired a format consisting of talk, big band.
Call sign — In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In North America, they are used for all FCC licensed transmitters, a call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or even cryptographically encoded to disguise a stations identity.
The use of signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one line linking all railroad stations.
In order to time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose. This pattern continued in operation, radio companies initially assigned two-letter identifiers to coastal stations and stations aboard ships at sea. These were not globally unique, so a company identifier was later added. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities, in the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters.
United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters W or K while US naval ships are assigned callsigns beginning with N, leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead.
Ships in the US wishing to have a radio licence anyway are under F. C, class SA, Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped. Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. Coast Guard small boats have a number that is shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the length of the boat in feet.
For example, Coast Guard refers to the 21st in the series of 47 foot motor lifeboats, the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example, Coast Guard zero two one. Call signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation, in most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircrafts registration number.
In this case, the sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet.
Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, for example, an aircraft registered as NCP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa.
However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would normally omit saying November, at times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters. This is especially true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions, for example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base. Operating as an independent entity, TBN is also the worlds largest religious television network, TBN was headquartered in Costa Mesa, California until March 3, when it sold its highly visible office park.
TBN also offers a range of original programming, and faith-based films from various distributors. It also owns several other networks outside of the United States. After that station was sold, he began buying two hours a day of programming time on KLXA-TV in Fontana, California in early and that station was put up for sale shortly afterward. The fledgling network was so weak in its first days, that, according to Crouch in his autobiography and it almost went bankrupt after just two days on the air.
TBN began national distribution through cable providers in The ministry, which known as the Trinity Broadcasting Network. Worldwide, TBNs channels are broadcast on 70 satellites and over 18, television, the TBN networks are also streamed live on the internet globally, the network also provides select archived shows on demand, through the website and select IPTV services.
During , citing economic problems and a lack of donations, TBN closed down, of those,17 were sold to another Christian television network, Daystar. Effective radiated power — Effective radiated power, synonymous with equivalent radiated power, is an IEEE standardized definition of directional radio frequency power transmitted from a theoretical half-wave dipole antenna.
It is differentiated from effective isotropic radiated power mainly by use of antenna gain instead of absolute gain in the calculation. The term antenna gain is assumed to be absolute unless specifically stated to be relative, the gain is then multiplied by the power actually accepted by the antenna to result in the actual ERP value.
Two that stand out in my mind would be Stefano Virgino and Manuela Biancospino. I present their jewelry collections on-air and had the pleasure of spending time with them on my recent trip to Italy. Sonia Bitton has the sweetest soul and means so much to me. Chuck Clemency and Dimitri James are so incredibly funny and I have a blast working with them both!
Speaking of Shop At Home where I began this fabulous career, I have a bond with 3 hosts that started there with me. We are all still in the shopping network business and still in touch. I love you Connie, Jennifer and Kim. Again, it is the highlight of my job!
Besides my gift of gab, I guess it is my passion for shopping! It really is a dream job that I am so incredibly grateful for. I want to thank each and every viewer that has invited me into their homes for the last 24 years. The pleasure is all mine!
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