Urinary System Physiology
They first appear in the fossil record about million years ago as the family Leptolepididae , with their homocercal caudal fin and caudal skeleton already fully developed. The major natural source of the vitamin is synthesis of cholecalciferol in the skin from cholesterol through a chemical reaction that is dependent on sun exposure specifically UVB radiation. These may be followed by polyuria , polydipsia , weakness, insomnia, nervousness, pruritus and ultimately renal failure. The nature of the ancestor remains a mystery. Teleosts reached their fullest extent within the last 50 million years and represent a distinct functional advance over their holostean ancestors. Five orders of holosteans are known, with their greatest evolutionary radiation occurring during the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods, when the chondrosteans were declining and the teleosts just beginning to expand.
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The physician uses the cystoscope to visualize changes in the lining of the urinary tract. Abnormalities that can be detected include the following: Diverticula sacs caused by abnormal holes in the urethra Ectopic displaced ureter Fistula abnormal passage Trabeculation strands of connective tissue Tumors Ureterocele ballooning of the lower end of the ureter. Cystoscopy may be performed in a physician's office, under local anesthesia, or as an outpatient procedure, under sedation and regional or general anesthesia.
Before undergoing the cystoscopy, patients should inform their physician if they are taking any medications, especially blood thinners e. If regional or general anesthesia is being used, patients are instructed to fast for at least 4 hours before the procedure. If local anesthesia is being used, a topical anesthetic e.
During the procedure, the cystoscope, which can be flexible or rigid and is about half the diameter of the urethra, is slowly inserted into the urethra to the bladder. A camera may be attached to the cystoscope to allow images to be viewed on a monitor. The physician examines the urethra and introduces a sterile liquid e. As the bladder fills, the patient may experience an uncomfortable urge to urinate. Additional instruments can be passed through the cystoscope to allow the urologist to perform procedures, such as stone removal, bladder biopsy, resection of a bladder or prostate tumor, and cauterization application of a small electrical charge to minimize bleeding.
When needed, it is discharged into the small intestine whose role is to break down fats, ethanol and other acidic wastes. The waste fluid that is created in the liver and collected in the kidney is transferred into the urinary bladder where it is temporarily stored until the individual urinates.
The urinary bladder provides a short term solution for storing urine in the body until it is ultimately discharged. The ureters tubes of smooth muscle fiber transfer liquid waste from the kidneys into the urinary bladder. The urine is moved with peristaltic movements which force the urine away from the kidneys. The ureters also have ureterovesical valves which ensure the waste fluid does not travel back into the kidney.
The urethra runs through the penis in males, and serves as a carrier of semen as well as urine for their ultimate discharge out of the body. The urethra tube is shorter in females and is just above the vaginal opening. Food particles are absorbed into the blood stream via the small intestine. The undigested substances are transferred to the large intestine which essentially serves as a storage organ for the excretory products.
The descending, ascending and transverse colons also facilitate the absorption of leftover vitamins, water and salt. The distal straight section known as the rectum is used for the storage of waste products feces before they are excreted from the body via the anal canal with the help of internal and external sphincters. Kidney stones are believed to form from crystals that have separated from urine, forming hard masses in the urinary tract, though the exact cause is unknown.
Symptoms for kidney stones include extreme pain, cramping in the lower abdominals and back, nausea, and vomiting. Most kidney stones can be passed by increasing your intake of water to flush them out, although surgery may be needed in some cases. Urethritis is a viral or bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the urethra.
Symptoms for urethritis vary between the sexes. Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection that travels from the urethra or bladder and to the kidneys. This infection occurs when bacteria enter the body through the urinary tract. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, blood in the urine, pain in the groin and abdominal pain.
Pyelonephritis is usually treated with oral anti-biotics, although the anti-biotics are sometimes administered intravenously in cases of severe infections. Cystitis is the medical term for inflammation of the bladder and it is one of the most common disease that affects excretory system organs. How the body regulates heat. Study finds nearly half of Americans not drinking enough water. Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Dietary and pharmacologic management to prevent recurrent nephrolithiasis in adults: A clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians.
Questions and answers about the kidneys and kidney disease. Hydration effects on temperature regulation [Abstract]. The water in you. Urinary tract infection In adults. Why are the kidneys so important? Your kidneys and how they work. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.
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There is no universally agreed quantity of water that must be consumed daily. Water is essential for the kidneys and other bodily functions. When dehydrated, the skin can become more vulnerable to skin disorders and wrinkling.
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