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Different definitions may cause different results. The vast majority of bird species are socially monogamous referring to social living arrangement, distinct from genetic monogamy , usually for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous arrangement of one male with many females or, rarely, polyandrous arrangement of one female with many males. This requires a fuller explanation. All dinosaurs lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate. They are totally pig centric and have a system that pays great attention to detail. These results indicate that muscle damage does occurs during migration, and that it is exacerbated in young, relatively untrained birds.
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Species that are unable to defend feeding territories, such as seabirds and swifts , often breed in colonies instead; this is thought to offer protection from predators. Colonial breeders defend small nesting sites, and competition between and within species for nesting sites can be intense. All birds lay amniotic eggs with hard shells made mostly of calcium carbonate. There are many exceptions to this pattern, however; the ground-nesting nightjars have pale eggs, and camouflage is instead provided by their plumage.
Species that are victims of brood parasites have varying egg colours to improve the chances of spotting a parasite's egg, which forces female parasites to match their eggs to those of their hosts. Bird eggs are usually laid in a nest. Most species create somewhat elaborate nests, which can be cups, domes, plates, beds scrapes, mounds, or burrows. Most birds build nests in sheltered, hidden areas to avoid predation, but large or colonial birds—which are more capable of defence—may build more open nests.
During nest construction, some species seek out plant matter from plants with parasite-reducing toxins to improve chick survival,  and feathers are often used for nest insulation. The absence of nests is especially prevalent in ground-nesting species where the newly hatched young are precocial. Incubation , which optimises temperature for chick development, usually begins after the last egg has been laid.
Warmth from parents passes to the eggs through brood patches , areas of bare skin on the abdomen or breast of the incubating birds. Incubation can be an energetically demanding process; adult albatrosses, for instance, lose as much as 83 grams 2. The diversity of characteristics of birds is great, sometimes even in closely related species. Several avian characteristics are compared in the table below.
At the time of their hatching, chicks range in development from helpless to independent, depending on their species. Helpless chicks are termed altricial , and tend to be born small, blind , immobile and naked; chicks that are mobile and feathered upon hatching are termed precocial.
Altricial chicks need help thermoregulating and must be brooded for longer than precocial chicks. The young of many bird species do not precisely fit into either the precocial or altricial category, having some aspects of each and thus fall somewhere on an "altricial-precocial spectrum". The length and nature of parental care varies widely amongst different orders and species. At one extreme, parental care in megapodes ends at hatching; the newly hatched chick digs itself out of the nest mound without parental assistance and can fend for itself immediately.
The main purpose of the guard stage is to aid offspring to thermoregulate and protect them from predation. In some species, both parents care for nestlings and fledglings; in others, such care is the responsibility of only one sex. In some species, other members of the same species—usually close relatives of the breeding pair , such as offspring from previous broods—will help with the raising of the young.
Among most groups of animals, male parental care is rare. In birds, however, it is quite common—more so than in any other vertebrate class. The point at which chicks fledge varies dramatically. The chicks of the Synthliboramphus murrelets, like the ancient murrelet , leave the nest the night after they hatch, following their parents out to sea, where they are raised away from terrestrial predators.
In most species, chicks leave the nest just before, or soon after, they are able to fly. The amount of parental care after fledging varies; albatross chicks leave the nest on their own and receive no further help, while other species continue some supplementary feeding after fledging.
Brood parasitism , in which an egg-layer leaves her eggs with another individual's brood, is more common among birds than any other type of organism. Brood parasites may be either obligate brood parasites , which must lay their eggs in the nests of other species because they are incapable of raising their own young, or non-obligate brood parasites , which sometimes lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics to increase their reproductive output even though they could have raised their own young.
Birds have evolved a variety of mating behaviours, with the peacock tail being perhaps the most famous example of sexual selection and the Fisherian runaway. Commonly occurring sexual dimorphisms such as size and colour differences are energetically costly attributes that signal competitive breeding situations.
Conflicts between an individual fitness and signalling adaptations ensure that sexually selected ornaments such as plumage coloration and courtship behaviour are "honest" traits. Signals must be costly to ensure that only good-quality individuals can present these exaggerated sexual ornaments and behaviours.
Inbreeding causes early death inbreeding depression in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. However, there are ecological and demographic constraints on extra pair matings. Inbreeding depression occurs in the great tit Parus major when the offspring produced as a result of a mating between close relatives show reduced fitness. In natural populations of Parus major , inbreeding is avoided by dispersal of individuals from their birthplace, which reduces the chance of mating with a close relative.
Southern pied babblers Turdoides bicolor appear to avoid inbreeding in two ways. The first is through dispersal, and the second is by avoiding familiar group members as mates. Within their group, individuals only acquire breeding positions when the opposite-sex breeder is unrelated. Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring, usually males, delay dispersal from their natal group in order to remain with the family to help rear younger kin.
In general, inbreeding is avoided because it leads to a reduction in progeny fitness inbreeding depression due largely to the homozygous expression of deleterious recessive alleles. Birds occupy a wide range of ecological positions.
Even within a single habitat, such as a forest, the niches occupied by different species of birds vary, with some species feeding in the forest canopy , others beneath the canopy, and still others on the forest floor. Forest birds may be insectivores , frugivores , and nectarivores. Aquatic birds generally feed by fishing, plant eating, and piracy or kleptoparasitism. Birds of prey specialise in hunting mammals or other birds, while vultures are specialised scavengers.
Avivores are animals that are specialised at preying on birds. Some nectar-feeding birds are important pollinators, and many frugivores play a key role in seed dispersal. Birds are often important to island ecology. Birds have frequently reached islands that mammals have not; on those islands, birds may fulfil ecological roles typically played by larger animals.
For example, in New Zealand the moas were important browsers, as are the kereru and kokako today. A wide variety of avian ecology field methods , including counts, nest monitoring, and capturing and marking, are used for researching avian ecology. Since birds are highly visible and common animals, humans have had a relationship with them since the dawn of man. Several bird species have become commercially significant agricultural pests,  and some pose an aviation hazard. Birds can act as vectors for spreading diseases such as psittacosis , salmonellosis , campylobacteriosis , mycobacteriosis avian tuberculosis , avian influenza bird flu , giardiasis , and cryptosporidiosis over long distances.
Some of these are zoonotic diseases that can also be transmitted to humans. Domesticated birds raised for meat and eggs, called poultry , are the largest source of animal protein eaten by humans; in , 76 million tons of poultry and 61 million tons of eggs were produced worldwide. Many species of birds are also hunted for meat. Bird hunting is primarily a recreational activity except in extremely undeveloped areas.
The most important birds hunted in North and South America are waterfowl; other widely hunted birds include pheasants , wild turkeys , quail, doves , partridge , grouse , snipe , and woodcock.
Other commercially valuable products from birds include feathers especially the down of geese and ducks , which are used as insulation in clothing and bedding, and seabird faeces guano , which is a valuable source of phosphorus and nitrogen.
The War of the Pacific , sometimes called the Guano War, was fought in part over the control of guano deposits. Birds have been domesticated by humans both as pets and for practical purposes.
Colourful birds, such as parrots and mynas , are bred in captivity or kept as pets, a practice that has led to the illegal trafficking of some endangered species. Today, such activities are more common either as hobbies, for entertainment and tourism,  or for sports such as pigeon racing. Amateur bird enthusiasts called birdwatchers, twitchers or, more commonly, birders number in the millions. Birds play prominent and diverse roles in religion and mythology.
In religion, birds may serve as either messengers or priests and leaders for a deity , such as in the Cult of Makemake , in which the Tangata manu of Easter Island served as chiefs  or as attendants, as in the case of Hugin and Munin , the two common ravens who whispered news into the ears of the Norse god Odin.
They may also serve as religious symbols , as when Jonah Hebrew: Birds have featured in culture and art since prehistoric times, when they were represented in early cave paintings. Among the most famous of these bird artists was John James Audubon , whose paintings of North American birds were a great commercial success in Europe and who later lent his name to the National Audubon Society.
Perceptions of bird species vary across cultures. Owls are associated with bad luck, witchcraft , and death in parts of Africa,  but are regarded as wise across much of Europe. In music , birdsong has influenced composers and musicians in several ways: Though human activities have allowed the expansion of a few species, such as the barn swallow and European starling , they have caused population decreases or extinction in many other species.
Over a hundred bird species have gone extinct in historical times,  although the most dramatic human-caused avian extinctions, eradicating an estimated — species, occurred during the human colonisation of Melanesian , Polynesian , and Micronesian islands. The most commonly cited human threat to birds is habitat loss.
Governments and conservation groups work to protect birds, either by passing laws that preserve and restore bird habitat or by establishing captive populations for reintroductions. Such projects have produced some successes; one study estimated that conservation efforts saved 16 species of bird that would otherwise have gone extinct between and , including the California condor and Norfolk parakeet. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates with wings, feathers and beaks.
For other uses, see Bird disambiguation and Birds disambiguation. For other uses, see Aves disambiguation and Avifauna disambiguation. List of fossil bird genera. Sibley—Ahlquist taxonomy of birds and dinosaur classification. Lists of birds by region and List of birds by population. Bird anatomy and Bird vision. Feather and Flight feather. Song of the house wren , a common North American songbird. A tooth-billed bowerbird mimicking a spangled drongo.
A woodpecker drumming on wood. Parental care in birds. Sexual selection in birds. Late Quaternary prehistoric birds , List of extinct birds , and Raptor conservation. Retrieved 11 June American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved December 11, Handbook of Birds of the World , Volume 1: Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.
Neornithes based on comparative anatomy. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Chiappe; Chiappe LM Currie and Kevin Padian eds. The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight. Memoirs of the California Academy of Science 8. Published by California Academy of Sciences.
The Dinosauria , Second Edition. University of California Press. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. The origin of birds and the evolution of flight. Dromaeosaurid or flightless bird? Prum 19 December Dinosaurs of the Air: Johns Hopkins University Press. The Great Feathered Dinosaur Discovery. Retrieved 3 August Retrieved 2 August Archived from the original on 16 June The Origin and Early Evolution of Birds.
University of New South Wales Press. Archived from the original on 2 April Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on 28 July Felice; Anjali Goswami Retrieved 10 April The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World 6th ed. Birds of the World: Explicit use of et al. Retrieved 30 December Phylogeny and classification of birds.
Species Taxa of North American Birds: A Contribution to Comparative Systematics. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, no. The Speciation and Biogeography of Birds. Biology of Marine Birds. Journal of Experimental Biology. Ecology, Management, and Conservation. The Birds of North America. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 2; New World Vultures to Guineafowl. A Guide to the Parrots of the World.
Dobkin; Darryl Wheye Retrieved 13 December Simon and Schuster, New York. WH Freeman and Co. Fernbank Science Center's Ornithology Web. Nitrogen balance and excretion in two frugivores". Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Archived from the original PDF on 24 May Retrieved 3 October Archived from the original on 22 June The Life of Birds.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B. Erratum in Proceedings of the Royal Society B The phylogeny of the erythrocyte". Magill's Encyclopedia of Science: Vol 1, pp — Pasadena, California, Salem Press.
Third Edition pp — Its phylogenetic and ecological significance" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 23 February Ornithology in Laboratory and Field. More like Herons than Hawks? Brain, Behaviour and Evolution. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Retrieved 12 November Archived from the original on 21 June Retrieved 19 October Journal of Avian Biology. Archived from the original on 26 February Retrieved 20 October Effects of uropygial oil on feather-degrading bacteria".
East Lansing, Michigan, US: Archived from the original on 14 April Retrieved 30 March Australian Government — Land and Water Australia. Archived from the original PDF on 15 March Retrieved 17 July The Science of Nature. Retrieved July 9, A review of morphology, function, and performance, with intercontinental comparisons". Australian Journal of Ecology. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.
Water economy and energy expenditure in avian endurance flight. Italian Journal of Animal Science. Archived from the original on 17 June The Open Ornithology Journal. Tracking year-round ranges of nonbreeding Albatrosses".
North America Bird Bander. Handbook of the Birds of the World , Volume 4: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Ethology Ecology and Evolution. Archived from the original on 24 December Handbook of the Birds of the World , Volume Costs and benefits of mixed groups to birds and monkeys".
American Journal of Primatology. Archived from the original PDF on 27 December The Journal of Experimental Biology. Causes, correlates, and conflict". Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. Female resistance, the CODE hypothesis, and social monogamy". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Birds of the World and their Behavior. Henry Holt and Co. Animal homosexuality and natural diversity.
One hundred species are described in detail. Journal of Animal Ecology. Bird Nests and Construction Behaviour. Their Ecology and Breeding Systems London: Bird Families of the World 3. The animal ageing and longevity database". Human Ageing and Genomics Resources. Retrieved 26 September University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association. Cambridge University Press, , p. Social evolution in the Corvida". Frontiers in Population Ecology.
Ancient Murrelet Synthliboramphus antiquus. The American Ornithologists' Union. Cuckoos, Cowbirds and other Cheats. An experiment in blue tits". New insights into dispersal and kin recognition". New Zealand Journal of Ecology. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
Handbook of Bird Biology Second ed. Conservation Biology 4 1 99— Red-winged blackbirds Agleaius phoeniceus and corn". Accessed 19 March Moving Up the Food Chain Efficiently. Retrieved 18 December Geographical Field Note ". Birding in the United States: Waterbirds around the world. Longmans, Green and co. In Pursuit of the Dove". Journal of Biblical Literature.
Johannes; Ringgren, Helmer Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. The Culture of Animals in Antiquity: A Sourcebook with Commentaries.
Retrieved on 5 March Gods and Heroes of the Ancient World. Medieval Venuses and Cupids: Sexuality, Hermeneutics, and English Poetry. University of Wisconsin Press. Athena in the Classical World. New York City, New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin. Journal of Business Ethics. Biology and conservation of owls of the Northern Hemisphere. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. Journal of the Royal Musical Association.
Retrieved 19 June Henry Tate's "undersong of Australia" Comes of Age". Journal of Music Research Online. Extinct Birds 2nd ed. Retrieved 15 May This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Bird " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article.
Find more about Bird at Wikipedia's sister projects. Kingdom Animalia unranked Bilateria Superphylum Deuterostomia. Ascidiacea sea squirts Appendicularia larvaceans Thaliacea pyrosomes, salps, doliolids. Myxini hagfish Hyperoartia lampreys.
Origin of birds Origin of flight Evolution of birds Darwin's finches Seabirds. Archaeopteryx Omnivoropterygiformes Confuciusornithiformes Enantiornithes Chaoyangiiformes Patagopterygiformes Ambiortiformes Songlingornithiformes Apsaraviformes Gansuiformes Ichthyornithiformes Hesperornithes Lithornithiformes Dinornithiformes Aepyornithiformes Gastornithiformes.
Struthioniformes ostriches Rheiformes rheas Tinamiformes tinamous Apterygiformes kiwis Casuariiformes emus and cassowaries. Acryllium Agelastes Guttera Numida. Meleagridinae Perdicinae Phasianinae pheasants and relatives Tetraoninae. Columbiformes doves and pigeons Mesitornithiformes mesites Pteroclidiformes sandgrouses.
Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Mineral Supplements, etc. For more information see Dairy ; Penn State Extension: Examples of "Castration of Calves" Subject Categories include " Click on Clinical Info.
Dairy Herd Vaccination Program includes: Dairy Cattle Vaccination Guidelines include " Killed inactivated vaccines KV vs Modified-live vaccines MLV ; Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of modified-live and killed inactivated vaccines; Recommended vaccination schedule for dairy heifers from birth to 6 months of age; Recommended vaccination schedule for heifers pre-breeding to calving; Recommended vaccination schedule for adult dairy cattle; Recommended vaccination schedule for dairy herd bulls; etc Examples of "Injection Methods" Subject Categories include " Browse Down to "Body Condition Scoring".
Body Condition Scores " Condition scores can be used on both heifers and cows, although primarily they are used on the lactating dairy herd. Essentially, body condition scoring provides an objective indication of the amount of fat cover on a dairy cow Dairy Cattle Tattooing Procedures include " Clean Ear With Alcohol; Step 2. Types of Ink; Step 3. Applying the Ink; Step 4.
In the dairy industry, where the primary revenue source is milk production and sale, calf delivery and newborn calf management are undervalued as areas of concern.
The problem of dystocia has been almost ignored Examples of "Dairy Cattle" Subject Categories include " Galactopoeisis is the maintenance of lactation once lactation has been established.
Two key interrelated components contribute to the maintenance of lactation, galactopoietic hormones and removal of accumulated milk. Because of the importance of galactopoietic hormones in milk production, sometimes the word galactopoiesis also is used to indicate enhancement of lactation, especially in dairy animals Milk Composition and Characteristics; Milk Components For more information see Walter L. Milking Systems; Robotic Milking Systems; etc.
Forage Harvesting Systems, etc Multimedia Milk Quality Program: Examples of "Milk Quality" Subject Categories include " It focuses on the biological, chemical, physical, and microbiological aspects of milk itself, and on the technological processing aspects of the transformation of milk into its various consumer products Milk Lipids; Milk Proteins; etc Density; Viscosity; Freezing Point; etc How Old is My Deer includes: Examples of Deer Farmers Handbook Chapters include " Kime, extension associate in agricultural economics; Jayson K.
Morton, Illustrated by S. Parasitology of Reindeer Parasites; Internal Parasites; etc. List of Figures Skeleton of the reindeer; Structure of the lungs; Ruminant stomach of the reindeer; Female urogenital system in reindeer; Male urogenital system in reindeer; etc For "Reindeer Reproduction" see " Length of estrous cycle for various livestock species raised in Alaska; Table 2.
Type of estrous cycle and time of year of the breeding season if the species is seasonal breeder; Table 3. Length of gestation for livestock species raised in Alaska; Table 4. Time of ovulation and suggested time of mating for several species Kime, senior extension associate; Robert S.
Examples of "Elk Production" Guide Sections include " Ground Level Elk Handling Facilities " The following drawings and designs describe an approach to handling elk. Construction suggestions and operational tips of the system are included For "Muskox" Reproduction see " Yak in Bhutan; etc.
Shell Egg Grades and Standards U. The Poultry Page is " An on-line zoological garden of domestic poultry, including photos, video and information about various breeds of fowl, such as chickens, ducks, geese, guinea fowl, peafowl, pigeons, and turkeys Shell Egg Grades and Standards include " Grades of Shell Eggs; U.
Trade Descriptions for Poultry U. Trade Descriptions for Poultry " The purpose of this standard is to facilitate trade at the wholesale level by better communicating product and packaging specifications for raw poultry products among buyers, producers, and traders. The trade descriptions pro- vide concise word and picture descriptions of product composition and define a coding system to precisely specify product and packaging characteristics Click on "Heart Rates".
Poultry Medicine Clinical Cases; etc Each "Poultry Diseases" includes " Includes over "" Poultry Disease Technical Reports. Each "Poultry Disease" Technical Report includes " Poultry Vaccination Schedules include Vaccination Schedules for " Examples of "Poultry Vaccination" Sections include " Handling vaccines on the farm; etc New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, Examples of "Poultry Science" Subject Categories include " Total incubation time to hatch, time for transfer to hatcher, and dry and wet bulb temperatures for common birds.
Growing Your Range Poultry Business: Raising Birds on Pasture; etc Examples of "Ornithology" Course Chapters include " The goals include and increased understanding of the process of gathering scientific data and the opportuinty to interacti with scientists from several disciplines The day Chick Lifecycle Ratites: Lacking the large keel on the breast bone where flight muscles attach, these birds are unable to fly Scheideler University of Nebraska and J.
The design of successful feeding programs for ratites ostriches and emus is a special challenge to nutritionists and production managers. There is little scientifically based information on nutrient requirements and efficiency of nutrient utilization by ratites.
Nevertheless, successful feeding programs have been developed by using Comparative intestinal lengths of ostriches, emus, and chickens; Body weights of ostriches and emus at selected ages; Nutrition guidelines for ostriches; Nutritional guidelines for emus; Concentrations of selected nutrients in ingredients used in feeds of ostriches and emus Ostrich reach an adult height of over 7 feet by 16 to 18 months of age. They continue to increase in weight after this time with adult males reaching over pounds.
Ostrich may become sexually mature at 2 years of age although males often mature later than females. It is not uncommon for hens to begin laying at 2 to 3 years of age while males may take as long as 4 to 5 years to be functionally mature Examples of "Biology of the Goat" Lessons include " Internal Parasites; External Parasites; etc Body Condition Scoring of Goats Video " Scoring is performed in goats using a BCS ranging from 1. A BCS of 1.
With practice, evaluating the BCS of an animal will only take about seconds Reference Guides include " Meat Production and Marketing; etc Creep feeding; Out-of-season Breeding; Flushing; etc Emergency first aid; Monitoring your herd; Taking vital signs; Vaccinating goats; Kid care; Parasites; etc Breaking down a carcass; Cheesemaking simplified; Feta Cheese; etc You can access the modules either for Certification or for Browsing.
Composting is an inexpensive, environmentally friendly method of disposing of animal mortality At maturity 3 years , it is able to pull a cart or carry a pack as it did in its native Sicily and Sardinia Horse Transverse Section Guide " The study of transverse sections is a traditional component of most veterinary anatomy courses.
To interpret transverse sections, veterinary students must switch from the three dimensions of their cadaver to the two-dimensional plane of the section Dental Anatomy of Horses " The molars and premolars of the horse are known as cheek teeth.
The cheek teeth slowly erupt to compensate for the constant grinding which wears away mm per year. For this reason, horses have very long teeth that are refered to as hypsodont which means "high tooth. Aging Horses by Their Teeth " For very young horses, eruption dates are useful, but in general, the place to start is examination of the occlusal surface of the lower incisors. The weight of your horse is the basic guide to calculating balanced rations, the single most necessary factor for sound health and good peformance Semen Collection from Stallions " Semen is collected from stallions as part of breeding soundness exams, as well as for artificial insemination.
Semen collected for insemination can be used fresh, cooled and shipped to another location, or stored frozen for use in the future The physical examination of the horse may be either generalized or focused Assisted Reproduction Techniques; Vaginoscopic Exam; etc Pregnancy Examination of the Mare Subject Catgories include " High Speed Equine Treadmill " The system developed by Dr.
Henneke assigns a numerical value to fat deposition as it occurs in various places on the horse's body. The system works by assessing fat both visually and by palpation examination by touch , in each of six areas Broodmare ; Breeding Stallion ; Performance Horse Form to Function " When evaluating the conformation of a horse, you should consider the following areas: Horse Conformation Analysis " Horse Reference Guides include " Examples of "Equine Disease" Sections include " Equine Lameness Diagnosis " This program is designed to help a student think through the steps necessary to diagnose lameness in the equine Each section shows the cross-sectional anatomy of that region in three orthoganol planes Pharmacia Animal Health, Pfizer Inc.
Abscess; Enostosis; Avascular necrosis; Femoralpatellar joint; Pedal osteitis; Pelvis fractures; etc Examples of "Equine Ophthalmology" Subject Categories include " Etiology, Signs, and Management; etc Examples of "Equine Orthopedic" Lectures include " How to Give your Horse an Intramuscular Injection " The site of the IM injection is important for the safety of the horse and the handler.
Choose a large muscle mass that is actively used by the horse Lunging and Ground Driving Video; etc Kellogg Arabian Horse Training Videos" include " Conformation Video - D. Scoggins; Starting with a Colt - D. Scoggins; Endurance Riding - C.
Examples of "Horse Videos" Categories which include over "" Videos" " Examples of "Basic Horsemanship" Lessons include " Determining correct nutrient levels; Roughage for horses; Concentrates for horses; Ration number 1: Foal creep ration; Ration number 2: Weaning horse ration; Ration number 3: Yearling, 2-year-old, late pregnancy and lactating mare ration; Daily nutrient needs Mature horses At maintenance; Mares: Last 90 days of gestation; Lactating mare: First two months; Weanling: Form to Function "Horse Conformation: Form to Function" " All bridles have three basic parts: The bit is the primary means of communication.
The reins allow you to manipulate the bit and also serve as a secondary means of communication. The headstall holds the bit in place and may apply pressure to the poll Arabian Horse Judging Video " Jackson; Revised by K. Examples of "Horse Judging Manual" Sections include " Fouts; Compiled by L. Horse Show Rings; etc In this forum we will analyze still shots of horses to demonstrate the factors that allow you to see the gait as diagonal or vertical, the support phase of the gait, the timing of the lift off and set down of the hooves and the tendency to be a ventroflexed or dorsiflexed Knot Tying" Videos include " They're economical can be made quickly and there's a wide range of rope colours and rope types to choose from Start with a foot length of rope There are many aspects that should be considered when fitting a saddle to the horse.
The type, size and build of saddle, along with the conformation of the horse, all play a part in a proper fit Selecting a Saddle to Fit the Rider Sections include " Saddlemaking Videos; Saddlemaking Production Techniques; etc How to saddle a horse; How to unsaddle a horse; How to mount a horse; How to determine saddle seat size; How to determine the correct stirrup length; How to determine western cinch size; etc The Secrets of a Long Saddle Life; etc Horse Locomotion, Dressage, etc.
Examples of "Understanding the Equine Hoof" Videos include " Examples of "Horse Hoofcare" Subject Categories include " Proceedings of the Royal Society A: A 8 November vol.
Here, we study the mechanics of the simplest rope trick, the Flat Loop, in which the rope is driven by the steady circular motion of the roper's hand in a horizontal plane. We first consider the case of a fixed non-sliding honda. Noting that the rope's shape is steady in the reference frame rotating with the hand, we analyse a string model in which line tension is balanced by the centrifugal force and the rope's weight.
We use numerical continuation Part I Selecting a Rope: Bodyweight; Meat; Breeding; Wool; etc Condition Scoring of Sheep " Visual Sheep Scores - Version 2 - " Provide the Australian sheep industry with a standardised set of visual assessment scores for the consistent description of important phenotypic traits of all breeds of sheep; Develop a quick and simple scoring system to help sheep classers and breeders select sheep on visually-assessed traits to accelerate genetic gain; etc Enable researchers to estimate the heritability of visually-assessed sheep traits, and to measure their relationships, if any, on important production traits such as fleece weight, fibre diameter, growth rate and body weight Sheep Reference Guides include " Sheep Videos include " Making More from Sheep " Almost leading sheep producers and technical experts helped develop the 11 linked modules in the manual, which cover subjects ranging from soils and pasture to wool and meat marketing, animal health, genetics and farm sustainability The initial investment and annual operation costs of a sheep enterprise are relatively low.
Sheep production requires adequate but not elaborate facilities and equipment Production Records; Ram Selection Ewe Puberty; Reproductive Cycle of the Ewes; etc Bloat; Cheesy gland caseous lymphadenitis in sheep; Eperythrozoonosis in Sheep; External parasites; Foot and mouth disease; Footrot; Internal parasites; Lamb Autopsy; etc Fat scoring sheep and lambs; Feedlotting lambs; How pasture characteristics influence sheep production; Sheep nutrition; etc Examples of "Sheep An Peischel and D.
This concept has been around for decades and has taken many names, including prescribed grazing and managed herbivory. The major difference between good grazing management and targeted grazing is that targeted grazing refocuses outputs of grazing from livestock production to vegetation and landscape enhancement Each "Sheep Diseases" includes " Foot Rot Eradication; etc Scrapie is a fatal, degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats.
It is among a number of diseases classified as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies TSE. Infected flocks that contain a high percentage of susceptible animals can experience significant production losses