Structural Detail Guidelines Materials of better or equivalent properties and strength may be used in lieu of the following: Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters. Wednesday, August 29, Taking this further, there's a hypothesis by Wieczorek et al that magnetic anomalies on the Moon around the south pole Aitken basin may result from the remains of the metal core of a large km diameter differentiated asteroid that hit the Moon to form the basin. Typically constructed of the same materials as the building shell with either interior or exterior access. The closest supernova candidate?
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We're looking for the best new uses for Terramonitor -data. As of , screening recommendations for detection of long term health effects from dye exposure included hematologic testing to look for microcytic anemia and leukopenia. Sandblasting is a technique used on denim to give the garment a worn look. Silicosis often leads to more severe lung diseases such as; lung cancer, Bronchitis, and Tuberculosis. They found workers inside poorly ventilated factories being exposed to respirable silica dust 20 times that of the recommended safety levels.
When the study concluded, over one third of the sandblasters had lab-confirmed silicosis and two workers had died during the study. Exposing the dangers of sandblasting has forced government agencies to step in and attempt to contain and control the amount of dust exposure. One method of containing the silica dust is the addition of water.
Another popular chemical involved in an alternate sandblasting technique is Potassium Permanganate or KMnO4. It is an odorless, dark purple, sand-like oxidizing agent. In the process of sand blasting, a worker sprays the potassium permanganate on a specific area on the denim garment with a hose or a brush. When the potassium permanganate dries, bleach is sprayed on top of the previously treated area to neutralize potassium permanganate and is then washed a second time.
When potassium permanganate comes in contact with the skin, it can cause irritation, deep burns, rashes and even dying of the skin. Inhalation of potassium permanganate can irritate the respiratory tract and can even lead to chronic lung diseases such as asthma, silicosis, and pulmonary edema.
One work environment health risk that often gets overlooked is noise induced hearing loss NIHL. Asia has, over the last 50 years, seen a significant growth in the manufacturing of both primary products and finished products. Some simple measures which could be implemented on machinery would include such actions as decreasing noise and creating noise barriers. For workers, the use of personal protective equipment, as well as the establishing maximum daily exposures, can go a long way to mitigate worker exposures to chronic noise.
In garment entrepreneurs had a reputation for shirking custom duties, evading corporate taxes, remaining absent in capital markets, avoiding social projects such as education, healthcare, and disaster relief but, as argued by authors Quddus and Salim, these entrepreneurs took the risks needed to build the industry.
Many workers profited from the increase, but it was also expected to attract more young girls to factories. Other major fires in and , resulting in hundreds of accidental deaths, included those at That's It Sportswear Limited and the fire at Tazreen Fashions Ltd. Major foreign buyers looking for outsourcing demand compliance-related norms and standards regarding a safe and healthy work environment which includes fire-fighting equipment, evacuation protocols and mechanisms and appropriate installation of machines in the whole supply-chain.
RMG insiders in Bangladesh complain about the pressure to comply and argue that RMG factory owners are hampered by a shortage of space in their rental units.
Members of the U. House of Representatives have also urged the U. Trade Representative 's office to complete its review of Bangladesh's compliance with eligibility requirements for the Generalized System of Preferences.
Five deadly incidents from November through May brought worker safety and labor violations in Bangladesh to world attention putting pressure on big global clothing brands such as Primark , Loblaw , Joe Fresh , Gap, Walmart , Nike , Tchibo , Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger , and retailers to respond by using their economic weight to enact change.
A fire broke out on 24 November , in the Tazreen Fashion factory in Dhaka  killing people and injuring Walmart director of ethical sourcing, Sridevi Kalavakolanu, asserted that the company would not agree to pay the higher cost, as such improvements in electrical and fire safety in the 4, factories would be a "very extensive and costly modification" and that "it is not financially feasible for the brands to make such investments.
It was likely the first time any garment factory owner in Bangladesh had been charged. On 24 April over textile workers factories making clothes for Western brands were killed when a garment factory collapsed. The Savar building collapse was in the Rana Plaza complex, in Savar, an industrial corner 20 miles northwest of Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. It was the "world's deadliest industrial accident" since the Bhopal disaster in India in In spite of this factories stayed open to fill overdue orders.
When generators were restarted after a power blackout the building caved in. Nine people were arrested including four factory owners, the owner of the complex and the engineer who warned of the crack in the building. In June after a two-year investigation homicide charges were filed against 42 people in the collapse of a factory Rana Plaza that killed more than 1, people in April Sohel Rana , the building owner, Refat Ullah, mayor at the time of the incident along with owners of five garment factories located in the Rana Plaza, and "dozens of local council officials and engineers" were charged with culpable homicide, "which carries a maximum sentence of life in prison under Bangladeshi law.
Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association BGMEA is a recognised trade body that represents export oriented garment manufacturers and garment exporters of the country. The fundamental objective of BGMEA is to establish a healthy business environment for a close and mutually beneficial relationship between manufacturers, exporters and importers, thereby ensuring steady growth in the foreign exchange earnings of the country.
In its final report BGMEA pinned the blame on inspection officials who granted permits to factory owners to install heavy machinery on the two floors not authorized to exist in the first place and on local officials for neglecting to ensure proper oversight of building plans.
The report also indicated that building owner Sohel Rana may have been able to corrupt municipal officials by offering bribes. On 9 May eight people were killed when a fire broke out at a textile factory in an eleven-story building in the Mirpur industrial district owned by Tung Hai Group, a large garment exporter. The president of the politically powerful textile industry lobby group, the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association BGMEA , told Reuters that "the Bangladeshi managing director of the company and a senior police officer were among the dead.
Around companies - mostly from Europe - international and local trade unions, Bangladeshi employers, exporters and government are part of this agreement. A spokesman stated that "Ten factories have been submitted to the Government Established Review Panel and most have been either closed completely or partially. In addition, international pressure from human rights organizations, labor organizations, NGOs, and consumers from Western nations pushed corporate retailers to play a larger role in protecting worker safety.
The Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh , a legally binding document, obligates retailers to cooperate with safety inspections and provide financial assistance to building owners in order to ensure that the standards of such inspections are met.
It is a five-year independent and legally binding agreement between 26 North American companies that is still being enforced. So far, at least 25 cases have been brought to the alliance for review and four factories have officially been closed. One of the main concerns after the crises is the structural integrity of RMG and textile factories. The Government of Bangladesh has made changes in this regard.
Many factories have been inspected since these changes were made, but there are still about 1, factories that have not been checked either because they are not registered with any organization or they have listed the wrong address which takes time away from inspectors. He suggests that the RMG manufacturing and supply industry should not only depend on the prescriptions of the global buyers but also adopt a 'new governance' approach in the local regulation framework of this industry.
Takahiro Fukunishi and Tatsufumi Yamagata, experts in international development, state that the garment industry "was the main factor of globalization" for Bangladesh. Throughout the s and continuing into modern day, the increase in total exports matched the increase in garment exports, indicating that this sector is responsible for a significant portion of Bangladesh's economic growth.
The European Union and the United States are the biggest importers of Bangladeshi garments, making up The garment industry has been praised by many as a major contributor to poverty reduction in Bangladesh. Proponents of this view argue that entry-level wages were enough to keep workers above the local poverty line, even if they were paid much less than other textile and garment factory workers comparatively.
The overwhelming majority of workers, about two-thirds, in the textile and garment industries of Bangladesh are women. In fact, the birth of the industry essentially created the entryway for a "whole generation of young, unmarried females, mainly from rural areas, into the industrial labor force.
A limitation on poverty reduction effects provided by the textile industry is the obvious work hazards associated with working in a factory. Welfare of garment workers is compromised by "long working hours, insufficient sanitation and medical facilities, dust and heat, as well as abuse and discrimination. As of the industry was adopting greening standards. There are government and private textile engineering colleges under universities that offer B.
The institutions are as below:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Bangladesh textile industry. For textile arts, see Textile arts of Bangladesh. Muslin trade in Bengal and Bengal Subah.
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